1. People’s wants, needs and demands
2. Energy & Technology is used (to…)
3. 3. Extract from the Earth’s Environment (neutral at time of extraction)
4. Resources are created and destroyed by the extraction of Earth’s Environment
Friction of Distance – how hard it is to travel from one place to another, not determined by distance but by difficulty.
1920-1960/70 Age of Automobile and Air Travel
1970+ Age of De-Concentration – everything begins to expand outwards
Erie Canal & other waterways built, this reduces the friction of distance
1910-1920 – demographics switch from mostly rural to urban living This was a result of high levels of immigration/emigration
Push & Pull factors of Migration -Push: (lost job, lost house) -Pull: (new job, better environment, better school)
ALL CULTURAL CHANGE IS DUE TO INNOVATION/INVENTION AND SPATIAL DIFFUSION The automobile was introduced as a new invention/innovation but was also spread through spatial diffusion; it took at least a decade to escape the novelty stage.
Spatial diffusion of the automobile slows down due to World War II and the Great Depression.
Pent up demand- when people have the cash to buy a product/service but the product isn’t available to purchase; this usually occurs after a recession. After WWII people had more money to spend and wanted automobiles, but production had been shifted to help with the war efforts (jeeps, weapons, etc), pent up demand was created for the automobile.
Concentric Ring/Zone Model E.W. Burgess 1920
1920: Novelty Stage of Automobiles, cars had little impact on city development.
Not many ppl living in CBD district and low income residents live closest to CBD and the “Zone of Transition” (the area of the old industrial core)
Wealthiest people were the only ones who could afford living far from CBD.
Sector Model—Homer Hoyt, 1939
INTRAURBAN STAGE BEGINS 1930-1945 AS THE HIGHWAY SYSTEM IS LAYED OUT ACROSS AMERICA AND CARS BECOME MORE ACCESSABLE
Extensions were built around the existing concentric ring model, these extensions continued outward as far as people were willing to drive.
Transportation became easier as automobiles became more accessible and the “Sector Model” was built around the increasingly accepted automobile.
Low economic houses built closest to the railroad and industry sector
1950’s saw the development of the American Dream and the Multi-Nuclear City Model
Multi-nuclear city model is an extension of the Sector model, the original CBD is centered around multiple extensions which convert into more suburban landscapes/cities.
These suburbs extend and develop as the automobile becomes more accessable.
The middle class balloons and people with money begin to expand outwards, the businesses follow the consumers and inner cities begin to fall apart, turn into low economic areas.
1945 – Now (AUTOMOBILE DOMINATION!!!)
We can no longer live without cars
Automobiles become a major factor of the Dust Bowl; tractors destroy the farm land with over farming and increase use of inanimate energy (machines)
60 Minute Isochrone – People are only willing to drive about 60 minutes out of their way to go somewhere…. Dallas is within the 60 minute Isochrome of Fort Worth, San Antonio is within the 60 minute Isochrome of Austin, etc. Conurbation – the effect of cities growing together (Kyle, Buda, San Marcos all grew together as the main core of Austin expanded and grew) Urban Gravity – the larger the urban area is, the further away people come… it has a stronger pull. ** Large cities have better goods and services to attract smaller cities, this puts the large city higher up in their urban hierarchy. Austin has a high Urban Hierarchy due to the surrounding smaller cities of Kyle, Round Rock, Georgetown, Buda and San Marcos.