Constitutionalism: Puritanical Absolutism versus the Monarchy in England Notes
Geographic Location: England is located in north-western Europe.
Population: Between the early 1600's and mid 1700's, the population of England ranged from 4.0 to 5.5 billion people. In the southeast, the rural areas and along the coasts were heaviest concentrations of population.
Size: England is approximately 130,373 square kilometers (50,337 square miles).
During the later years (around 1680's), the power of the English monarchy was confined. The involvement of an active parliament was introduced.The monarch was to be under the law and rule by Parliament's consent, which would meet every three years.
The English economic structure in the seventeenth century was characterized by:
Mercantilism: England received imports and manufactured goods from their colonies. It also showed that wealth was consolidated in the hands of few.
International trade and investment: There was a steady trade of resources with surrounding countries. Rich city merchants, rich country gentry and financiers invested their profits abroad.
A skilled working middle class of tradesmen emerged
Agriculture was a lot more developed than in most places. The English utilized fertilizers which increased plant yields. Additionally, old common manorial land would be converted into sheep runs.
Landowners also sold parcels of lands
Commercial ventures would include the expansion of the cloth industry.
English men were referred to as capitalists in 1600’s because they invested their profits to make more money.
A key determinant of rank and status in the English society of the 17th century (under the supreme rule of monarchs) was wealth.
The English society was organized in a social hierarchy which could be observed in both family and state.
Christianity was practiced throughout England in 1600's
Anglicanism was the most dominant religious group as it was established by Henry VIII and Queen Elizabeth I at the times of the Protestant reformation.
Calvinism was also popular at the time because many of the wealthy and successful English individuals agreed with and were fond of John Calvin’s theory about success and its relevance to salvation.
Puritans attempted to purify the Church of England. they wanted to purify the Anglican church of Roman Catholic element such as the position of the altar in the church and the elaborate vestments and ceremonials.
After the Glorious Revolution, it was affirmed in the Bill of Rights that the English monarch must always be protestant.
James I (r. 1603-1625)
Elizabeth I's cousin; first of Stuart kings; lacked “common touch”
Ignored England's great debt to finance lavish courts firm believer of the "divine right of kings" to an extreme extent (absolute monarch) dissolved Parliament (only called for it when he needed money)
Puritans wanted to "purify" the Anglican church and get rid of bishops. James disagreed and said “No bishop, no king,” making them think he supports Catholicism. James I was really a Calvinist in doctrine.what
Charles I (r. 1625-1649)
James I's son, also a firm believer of the "divine right of kings" to an extreme extent (absolute monarch) continued tension with parliament (ruled without parliament for 11 years; Parliament did not want to finance his army) finances through illegal means (e.g. taxation)
He disliked Puritans (not allowed publish/preach) (suppressed by William Laud)
(Scotland)Laud tried to force them to use a prayer book similar to the Anglican Book of Common Prayer →Scottish revolted → call for Parliament
Needing the money, Charles agreed:taxes -illegal without parliament's consent;William Laud -impeached and executed;abolish bureaucracy; Triennial Act -must call for Parliament at least once every 3 years
English Civil War (1642-1649) rebellion in Ireland -> Charles want