1.1 Explain what is meant by the term ‘dementia'
Dementia is the progressive decline in cognitive function due to damage or disease in the body beyond what might be expected from normal aging,unlike Alzheimer's disease which is a specific change in the brain.
The signs and symptoms that occur with dementia involve a progressive decline (gradual deterioration) in a person’s mental abilities, namely the ability to : Remember.make rational judgments, communicate.
This can have changes in personality and behavior,and will impact on a person’s ability to carry out everyday activities such as cooking, cleaning.washing and dressing.
1.2 Describe the key functions of the brain that are affected by dementia
Frontal Lobe: Movement,emotional,behavior,personality.interpretation and feeling Parietal Lobe:Language.special, awareness and recognition Temporal Lobe:Long term memory,speech and hearing.
Cerebellum:Balance.posture,muscle coordination and movement.
1.3 Explain why depression, delirium and age related memory impairment may be mistaken for dementia
Symptoms of depression:
Anxiety,irritability,sleep disturbance,getting to sleep and staying asleep,change in appetite,weight loss and weight gain,difficulty concentrating,thinking or making decisions.ability to manage every day tasks and motivation.
Symptoms of delirium:
Hallucinations and delusion,problems with thinking,severe confusion.
Age related memory Impairment
Forgetting where you left things,forgetting names or blocking one memory with a similar one,becoming easily distracted,not quite being able to retrieve information you have (on the tip of your tongue.
Symptoms of dementia:
Increasing difficulties with tasks and activities that require concentration and planning, memory loss,depression,changes in personality and mood,periods of mental confusion,visual hallucinations,wandering,poor sleep. Other medical conditions can result in symptoms associated with delirium.
Dementia and delirium may be particularly difficult to distinguish and a person may have both,frequently delirium occurs in people with dementia.
Most of the symptoms above are shared with each illness,this makes it clear why they can all be mistaken for dementia.
2.1 Outline the medical model of dementia ‘In the medical model of dementia the dementia itself is the focus rather than the person and it is seen as something that has to be treated and managed.
2.2 Outline the social model of dementia In the social model of dementia it is the reverse of the medical model because the person not the dementia is the focus and what the person needs, their feelings and wishes is the main focus rather than the dementia.
2.3 Explain why dementia should be viewed as a disability
Individuals who have dementia are not aware of requirements for living.They can forgot to do essential things that are vital,taking medicines,personal hygiene,even eating and drinking are forgot,they can get lost or hurt.
Individuals with dementia can not act in the manner of a responsible adult which is why dementia should be viewed as a disability.
3 Know the most common types of dementia and their causes 3.1 List the most common causes of dementia
Dementia is caused by damage in the brain,The most common causes of dementia are called neurodegenerative diseases and include Alzheimer’s disease,Frontotemporal dementia and dementia with lewy bodies,Vascular dementia. 3.2 Describe the likely signs and symptoms of the most common causes of dementia Alzheimer's disease common signs are:Memory loss,making decisions becomes harder as the person becomes more confused.
Personality or mood changes such as depression and withdrawal, sometimes obsessive behavior and language difficulties.