Corporate Entrepreneurship can be seen as the process whereby an individual or a group creates a new venture within an existing organization, revitalizes and renews an organization ,or innovates. Zahra’s(1986) definition of corporate entrepreneurship suggests aformal or informal activity aimed at creating new businesses in established firms through product and process innovations and market developments,whereas sathe(1985) defines corporate entrepreneurship as a process of organizational renewal. Corporate Entrepreneurship has emerged as a much needed ingredient contributing towards the growth of any organization under a changing business environment.
Corporate entrepreneurship (CE) is widely considered as a …show more content…
Regarding a firm’s innovative output, i.e. the production of innovations, both measures of its quantity and quality are used. For quantity, commonly used empirical measures include research and development expenditures –although it measures input rather than output – patents, and the introduction of new products or technologies. The quality of those innovations is indicated by patent citations and the importance of the innovations, however measured. Moreover, the commercializations of innovations as well as the adoption of innovations are used as measures of contributions to economic value through innovation.
3) Productivity and growth:
They are measured by (a firm’s or region’s contribution to) a country’s gross domestic product (GDP) or GDP growth. Therefore, studies are included in our review if they measure a firm’s (or region’s) value added, labor productivity – i.e. a firm’s (or region’s) contribution to the GDP per worker – or total factor productivity (TFP), i.e. output per unit of capital and labor input combined. Studies measuring the value and/or growth of each of these indicators of productivity and growth are considered relevant and are discussed.
Indicators for an entrepreneur’s individual utility relative to employees relate to specific sources of utility. The first source is any form of remuneration, i.e. expected incomes. Risk is another element affecting the utility of risk-averse