Developmental Psychology and Young Children Essay example

Submitted By lmnoel
Words: 813
Pages: 4

Temperament
• Birth to 5 years
• Style we use to approach the world o Genetically based o Way we approach and react to situations
• 3 categories of temperament- easy, slow to warm, difficult o 9 characteristics
• Activity level (low to high)
• Regularity of biological rhythms- sleep, eat, eliminating (irr to reg)
• Approach/withdrawal tendencies
• Mood (pos or neg)
• Intensity of reaction (low to high)
• Adaptability (slow to quick)
• Sensitivity to 5 senses (low to high)
• Distractibility (low to high)
• Persistence- continues an activity o Slow to warm: most likely can tell- approach/withdrawal o Easy 40%, slow to warm 15%, difficult 10%
• Why is temperament important? o Sensitive & responsive care o Goodness of fit: match btwn a child’s temperament and their environment o Give children time to respond

Attachment
• Enduring reciprocal relationship between a child and their primary caregiver
• Primary Caregiving- a specific caregiver is assigned to care for a specific group of children
• Get to know children’s temperaments
• Easier to develop trust & relationships
• Stages
• 1. Pre-attachment phase (birth to 6 weeks) o keep people close to them o recognize mom/dad smell and voice and respond
• 2. Attachment in the making (6weeks to 6/8 months) o infants respond differently to caregiver than to stranger o begin to develop sense of trust o still don’t fuss if separated
• 3. Clear cut attachment (6/8 months to 18 months) o separation anxiety o attachment is evident (mom as secure base) o object permanence
• 4. Reciprocal attachment (18 months and up) o infants know when parents are leaving, try to keep them close
• Patterns of attachment
• Secure- use mom as base, mom provides comfort during reunion.
• Insecure
• Resistant- don’t use mom as base, angry
• Avoidant- avoid mom
• Disorientated/disorganized-very stressed, abused/neglected

Erikson
• Trust vs. mistrust (birth to 1 year)
• can I trust the world?
• Promote trust by responding to needs
• Can’t spoil baby
• Child care high quality low ratios
• Constant care
• Piaget- sensorimotor (birth to 2 years)
• Children think differently
• Learn with senses
• Babies move from reflex action to goal during this period
• Object permeance o 8 to 12 months (a not b error) o 18 to 24 months = truly understand
• Peek-a-boo

NAEYC- dap
• National Association for the education of young children (birth to 8years)
• DAP- developmentally appropriate practice
• Approach to teaching grounded both in the research on how young children develop and learn and in what is known about effective early education
• Promote young children’s optimal learning and development.
• 1. Is it individually appropriate?
• 2. Is it age appropriate?
• 3. Is it culturally appropriate?

Brain Development
• “use it or lose it” synapses
• sensitive period for the brain
• brain based care: responsive, sensitive, sensitive touch, talk= conversational give and take.

Key Factors of Quality Care
• Expensive- get what you pay for, hard to find
• Ratios are low
• Safe and clean
• Curriculum
• Sensitive caregiving (most important)
• Nutrition program
• Teacher qualifications

Mixed age grouping
• Benefits o Everyone doesn’t have same developmental needs
• Older children can help younger
• Sibling can be together
• Routines may be easier to manage
• Lower transitions are better for children

Crying
• Crying always has meaning
• Why do babies cry?
• Hungry
• Tired
• Under/over stimulated
• Scared
• Sick
• Uncomfortable
• Hot/cold
• How do we stop?
• Provide care needed
• Sing
• Go outside
• Bounce/bob
• Prevent distress
• Rubbing eyes…