Difference Between Lewin And Beckhard

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Pages: 8 Models by Lewin (1951) and Beckhard (1969)
The other best change models are those developed by Lewin (1951) and Beckhard (1969).
(a) The Lewin (1951) Model: The model encompasses: (i) Unfreezing– altering the present stable equilibrium that supports existing behaviours and attitudes, a process which needs to take into account the inherent threats change presents to people and the need to motivate those affected; (ii) Changing, which is concerned with developing new responses based on new information; (iii) Refreezing, which about stabilising the change by introducing the new responses into the personalities of those concerned.

(b) The Beckhard (1969) Model: A change programme should incorporate the following processes: (i) Setting
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Managers in different divisions may have different attitude to change and some will be less supportive than others.
• Functional obstacles are based on the fact that different organisations have different strategic orientation and goals and thus react differently to changes. Functions may range from production, sales and research and development. Production orientation is that of short term cost directed efficiency while research and development is oriented towards long term technical goals while sales are oriented towards satisfying customers’ needs. The different orientations make it difficult for management to formulate and implement a new strategy because of differences in reaction depending on orientation.
• Individual obstacles- restructuring and other forms of strategic change are often resisted by people and groups inside an organisation for example the decision to restructure and downsize, an organisation requires the establishment of a new set of task and role relationships among organisational employees. Because change may threaten the jobs of some employees, they resist the change taking
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The Reason for NICO to under go restructuring was to establish separate operational companies for the life business and general business that would result in greater accountability and more dedicated and efficient management focus. The rationale behind this was also the exmpasion of NICO’s range of services and activites would lead to significant investments.

The restructuring would enable the management of NICO to focus more effectively on the activites of all its operating subsidiaries and also more efficiently manage its investments and the future expansion growth. NICO’s life insurance business (the life business) is conducted by a NICO Life Insurance Company which was incorporated in Malawi. NICO’s short term General Insurance business (the general busines) is conducted by a NICO General Insurance Company (The General Insurance) which was incorporated in Malawi. The top company of the life company and the general company is NICO Holdings which hold all the shares of the life and general