Reinforce the six steps of the writing process.
Discuss in detail editing and revision strategies.
Susan Faludi, “The Naked Citadel” (NHR)
“Drafting, Revising, and Editing,” LBH 54-75.
Writing Process II, III
Pedagogical Intent: This lesson reinforces the six steps of the writing process (ideation/brainstorming, outlining, drafting, editing, revision, publication) before focusing more closely upon editing and revision strategies with an eye towards providing cadets with the tools necessary for publishing their draft HWE 1 at the beginning of Lesson 13.
Address issues/questions remaining from the previous class and the lesson assignment.
The six steps of the formal writing process:
Drafting (x 3)
Drafting is predicated upon your brainstorming and outline.
Take your introduction and expand upon it to prepare your opening paragraph.
Have you grabbed your reader’s attention?
Have you transitioned from your attention-getter into a clearly defined and focused thesis statement?
Have you introduced the main points you will discuss throughout your essay to support (or “prove”) your thesis?
Close your introduction with a powerful sentence that allows you to transition into your body paragraphs.
Now you are ready to write purposeful body paragraphs that are unified, coherent, consistent, and well developed.
As you write your draft…continuously ask yourself – am I providing EXACTLY the right amount of detail? Remember – you do not want to bore your audience, but you have to provide enough information to fully convince your audience that you have constructed a valid argument.
Ensure that EVERY sentence, EVERY quotation…literally, EVERY WORD of a paragraph must, in some way, refer to and/or support the paragraph’s topic sentence.
Employ precise diction.
Use pronouns and antecedents where appropriate.
Repeat key (critical) words/phrases.
Identify and then use synonyms to avoid repeating the same words/phrases over and over again throughout your essay.
Use transitional phrases to link sentences together within a paragraph (internal transitions) and paragraphs together (external transitions.)
The handout and your texts both have lists of transitional words/phrases.
Consistently remind yourself of your purpose for writing the essay. (What am I trying to prove? Am I proving it?) Stay on track.
Beware of the tone of your essay. Just as you have a “voice” when you speak (and a specific attitude unique to you) – your writing also has a tone. Be careful that your tone is appropriate for the type of essay you are trying to construct. Coming across as a blowhard or know-it-all is not usually very endearing. Conversely, you should not sound as if you are unsure about your own argument. Be confident without being cocky or condescending. Most importantly, be yourself.
Vary your sentence structures. Just as you do not enjoy mind-numbing repetition (in class, on the radio, on a CD, in a book, on a television show, etc.) – neither does your audience. You can vary your sentences in two relatively easy (but effective) ways:
Length: Do not make every single sentence the same length. Use short sentences, medium-length sentences…and long sentences.
Short sentences work very effectively to introduce longer sentences…or after a series of longer sentences. Use them for dramatic effect or to reinforce a main point.
Use coordinating words (and, but, yet, or nor, for, so) and subordinating words (after, although, as if, as soon as, because, even though, if, since, unless, until, when, whenever, etc.) very carefully. Coordinating and subordinating words are powerful tools – as long as you do not overuse them.
Verb Selection: Most beginning (and even intermediate) writers rely entirely too heavily upon forms of the verb “to be” – is, was, are, to be