1. Aqueduct (1st Century)- Before aqueducts, there was no running water, and diseases were spreading like a swarm of mosquitoes on a warm summer evening. The Aquaducts gave the Romans fresh water (since they were elevated, the water wouldn't be tainted by the ground), luxuries such as baths, and a proper, organized sewer system.
2. *Ballista (~400 BCE)- The ballista was pretty much a small, light catapult that has the ablity to launch rocks or other "items". The Ballista itself was actually made by the Greeks, but the Romans had their own version- the "onager". Although this was not as accurate as the ballista, the onager was way more powerful.
3. Dome (~2nd Century)- Although the Dome was created at an earlier time , it was not until the second century that they were found in buildings and other structures. A good example with this feature is the Hagia Sofia in Turkey. Domes gave a structure a "larger" appearance and a more enjoyable view from both the inside and outside.
4. Concrete (3rd Century)- Believe it or not, but the Romans were the ones who invented concrete. The general concept of how it was made is similar to today, except the Romans used volcanic ash in the mixture. This greatly helped people in both structures and pathways.
5. Printing press (15th Century)- Before the printing press, all copies had to be made by hand- exactly the way they were in the original. This means that words on a specific line will need to be on that line in the copy.
6. Glasses (13th Century)- Glasses, as you might suspect, help people all the time. But it was not until 1286 that they were actually invented. Glasses helped first with magnification. and later versions actually helped with sharpness.
7. Compass (12th Century)- The compass was an engineering feat that was designed and invented by the Chinese. The first versions were said to be needles (magnetized) that floated in a bowl of water After this was discovered