ESS 120: Biophysical Values of Activity
Chapter Review Worksheet
Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. The answers must be hand written! Typed assignments will not be accepted.
1. Define the following:
a. First Law of Thermodynamics - Energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but transformed from one form to another without being depleted.
b. Second Law of Thermodynamics - Entropy refers to the tendency of potential energy to convert to kinetic energy of motion with a lower capacity for work
c. Potential Energy - the energy stored in an object due to its position in a force field or in a system due to its configuration.
d. Kinetic Energy - an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
e. Exergonic - Any physical or chemical process that releases (frees up) energy to its surroundings.
f. Endergonic -Chemical processes store or absorb energy
g. Enzymes - A highly specific and large protein catalyst that accelerates the forward and reverse rates of chemical reactions within the body without being consumed or changed in the reaction.
h. Phosphorylation - The energy transfer through the phosphate bonds of ATP to other compounds to raise them to a higher activation level.
i. Oxidation - Biologic burning of macronutrients in the body for the energy needed for phosphorylation.
j. Glycolysis - Carbohydrate breakdown
2. List the SIX forms of energy and provide ONE example of each form of energy.
Chemical, Mechanical, Heat, Light, Electric, Nuclear
3. List the THREE forms of biologic work AND provide an example of each form of biologic work. Mechanical Work - Muscle contraction Chemical Work - Synthesis cellular molecules Transport Work - Concentration of various substances in the intracellular and extracellular fluids
4. Where does “oxidation” occur?