Global Epidemiology Of Chronic Diseases

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Chapter 1: Global Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases
Epidemiology The cornerstone of public health, focuses on the distribution and causes of disease in human population and developing/ testing ways to prevent and control disease. Spreads light on how a particular disease originates, spreads, and how to control
World population= 7.0 billion people
62 million deaths/ 39 mil deaths (63%)=Chronic disease/ 23 mil deaths (37%)= acute disease
World population is increasing and growing older in age
Global changes- longevity is increasing and the fertility rate is decreasing
Worldwide, average life expectancy 67 years
Women live longer than men (5-10 years) begins at conception
Life expectancy increased greatly over the years in China, India, and other developing nations
Life expectancy lowest in underdeveloped nations, sub-Sahara Africa
Longest longevity in developed nations. Longest in Japan 82
Aging driven by deterioration in cell health.
Mortality in sub-Sahara Africa
The relatively young population has highest annual death (3-4X higher risk than other countries)
Hunger, malnutrition, HIV, hepatitis, etc.
Chronic disease in older adults very high because no health care
Mortality in Afghanistan and Russia
Crude annual death rate in Afghan reflects war-torn population and little access to health care
Also annual death rates high in Russia due to smoking and alcohol abuse
Leasing causes of Death Worldwide
Cause of Death
Deaths (mill)
Mortality
Heart disease
11.9
19.4%
Infection
11.5
18.8%
Cancer
7.6
12.3%
Stroke
5.9
9.6%
COPD
4.2
6.9%

Epidemiological Transition transition from acute diseases (infections, deficiency, etc.) as the leading cause of death to chronic diseases
Many nations are experiencing marked increases in life expectancy and decreases in fertility
Also known as demographic transition
Globally, it is therefore necessary to raise the priority accorded to chronic diseases and develop and implement effective disease prevention and health promotion strategies and policies for populations at risk
High Vs. Low income nations
~75% of deaths in high income nations are chronic disease
~60% of deaths in low income nations are acute disease
More than 5 billion people live in low income nations
Live on less than $3 dollars a day. No clean water, proper sanitation, sewage systems, adequate nutrition, or health care
Not completely rid of infectious diseases in the US… West Nile outbreak in 2012 (Alexander Yersin, Swiss Biologist)
Bubonic Plague: west cost problem
Avian Influenza (H5N1) mortality rate= 50%,
Evolved from some places in and around Kansas, and spread throughout the world because of soldiers in WWI.
8 genes…. Swine, human, avian
No vaccine
Smoking
(Worldwide) 40% of men, 10% of women chronic smokers
40%> of men in W. Pacific, S.E. Asia and Europe
20%> in women of America and Europe
1/3 adults
5.4 mill people died in 2009 from smoking-related diseases
Lung cancer corresponds directly with smoking
Lung cancer is the number one cause of death in men AND women within the US
Global Obesity adults with BMI of 30+
10% of men, 12% of women
400 mill>
Highest level of obesity in US and Europe
Global increase reflects a pandemic of over-nutation and metabolic overload
US obesity has increased steadily/alarmingly over the years
Obesity linked directly with many chronic disease (hypertension, type 2 diabetes, heart attack, stroke, cancer, high blood pressure, arthritis, etc.)
US highest of type 2 diabetes:
1. The stomach changes food glucose
2. Glucose enters bloodstream
3. Pancreases make insulin
4. Insulin enters bloodstream
5. Glucose cant get into cells if body. Glucose builds up in bloodstream
Top 4 killing cancers: lung, prostate, breast, and colon
Leading cause of death globally Myocardial Infarction (MI)
Built up plaque ruptures and forms blood clot or blocks flow completely
Stroke same problem blood clots from brain.
HIV/AIDS…