Espionage: Cold War and Military Industrial Complex Essay

Submitted By lbg92
Words: 1147
Pages: 5

Military Industrial Complex
We live in one, we are one
It is inseparable from everything we are
Been with us since early stages of the cold war
Close relationship between U.S militaries and the corporate entities working for contract
Every large company has been involved with the military industrial complex
*** America can draw upon vast resources, Russia can not because they don’t have a market-based economy

1957 – Satellites
America feel intimidated due to Russia who was first to put a satellite into space

Aerial Reconnaissance
Creation of the American spy plane called U2 (built in 1951, unveiled in 1953)
This is where America does better than Russia
CIA funded, companies used to build the plane are Boeing and Kodak (cameras)
30 missions flown between 1953-1959 where the U2 was used

Francis Gary Powers (April – May 1960)
A U2 plane goes missing, flown by Francis Gary Powers
Russians obtain the plane and pilot

Nikita Khrushchev (1953 – 1964)
In May 1960, he was scheduled to meet with Eisenhower for negotiation

Dwight Eisenhower (1953 – 1961)

Operation Mongoose
Plans to get rid of Fidel Castro
Plan starts in 1959, John F. Kennedy launches an invasion of Cuba
Bay of Pigs (April 1961)  1100 exiles in Cuba, it was a disaster because plans were leaked and the CIA looks embarrassed
Kennedy takes personal blame for the disaster
CIA

= CIA is no longer an effective agency due to these mistakes (undermining the publics opinion of Castro, etc.)

Cuban Missile Crisis (Oc. 1962)
CIA uncovers evidence than the Russian hide missiles in Cuba
11 minutes away from a nuclear Armageddon

Oleg Penkovskiy
He leaked the information to America

Vietnam Wars (1946 - 1975)
CIA used this as a testing ground for chemical weapons (pesticides); unethical on America’s behalf
Bombing:
More bombs are dropped in Vietnam than anywhere else who got bombed in WW2
People died of cancer courtesy of the chemicals

Project Jennifer (1968-1974)
Revolves around the retrieval of the nuclear submarine K129
The submarine goes down (blueprints of Russia’s technology)
American president Johnson (1963-1969) issues the SS. Halibut to retrieve the K129 They find the submarine in 2 pieces
American president Nixon (1969 - 1974), pursues the second half of the project
Borrow the Glomar Explorer, to go out and physically retrieve the K129
In 1972, the clementine claw picks up the submarine, but the claw breaks and the submarine falls
*** Most expensive program to intelligence history: Project achieves absolutely nothing, but they were able to achieve Soviet technology
This allowed the Americans to win the “Space race” and have the Americans launch SDI  the building of satellites in space

= Courtesy of Industrial Complex, American can do anything with money

KoreanAirLiner (August 1983)
Korean Airliner called 007 flies from NYC to North Korea it strays off course into Soviet Airspace and the Russians shoot it down killing everyone (one of the darkest times in the Cold war)
Perfect for American propaganda
Conspiracy that CIA turned this into a probe; telling the plane to fly into Soviet airspace… the Korean pilot flew off course and had documents supporting this probe

Able Archer (NATO – October 1983)
In a NATO exercise, simulated a military attack on computer, and no one told Russia it was an exercise so we were 8 minutes away from a nuclear warfare
Failed to notify Russian Offices that it was a protocol

Oleg Kalugin (KGB 1965 – 1997)
Near the end of Cold War, Russians start to defect because the Soviet Union was collapsing
KGB station chief in Washington, in 1997 he defected himself telling all his and the Soviet Union’s operations
One episode was the killing of Georgi Markov (1978) in London

Hienze Felfe (1945-1961)
Marcus Wolf
= These men came out as Germans working for the Russians (KGB)

Vitaly Yurchenko (1960-1985)
KGB Station chief in Rome, defects by walking into the USA…