• As a strong deontological he was opposed to all forms of consequentialism.
• According to Kant morality is not concerned with expressing our feelings, nor is it a matter of maximizing good and minimizing the consequences.
• The basis of morality is reason.
• Kant proposes a monistic theory of obligation, like Mill.
• “An action done from duty has its moral worth, not in the purpose to be attained by It, but in the maxim in which it is decided upon. It depends on principle of volition in accordance with which, irrespective of the faculty of desire the action has been performed.
• Supports deontological theory.
• Moral worth lies not in the happiness or pleasure but the kind of action it is.
• Immoral maxims and immoral actions based upon them can never under any circumstances pass the categorical imperative test.
• The test considers the logical coherence of the universalized maxim upon which I personally propose to act.
• The GOLDEN RULE.
• Never just use people.
• Categorical imperative 3- treat other as autonomous agents, capable
• Divine law: set of standards explicitly revealed by god. Examples include the Ten Commandments and religious provisions. It is necessary because it guides us to our natural ends which fall under happiness, and it is essential corrective for our tendency to make errors in deriving principles of eh NL from primary ones. Page 110
• Eternal Law : gods rational plan or direction for all things within he universe.
• Natural law is imprinted on us and eternal law governs the activities of rational human beings
• Good be pursued and evil avoided.
John Stuart Mill
• Happiness is how all our moral judgments are ultimately explained or justified.
• All actions are open to evaluation on the basis of their utility.
• Happiness: pleasure present, pain absent.
• Unhappiness: pain present, pleasure absent.
• Act utilitarianism: rightness or wrongness of ones actions in terms of good or bad consequences.
• Tries to reconcile his beliefs about freewill, and the belief that humans are morally responsible for…