FINAL EXAM FALL 14 OUTLINE FINAL VERSION Essay

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FINAL EXAM: TERMS/CONCEPTS
SECTIONS YOU WILL NOT BE TESTED ON (AND THUS, DO NOT HAVE TO READ FOR FINAL)
SKIP ENTIRELY:
Chapter 1-4 ENTIRELY (been there, done that!)
Chapter 7 Module 22: Language
Chapter 8 ENTIRELY (again, done and done!)
Chapter 9 Module 27 EXCEPT very first page (p. 329)
Chapter 10 Module 31: Psychodynamic Approaches to Personality Module 33: Assessing Personality
Chapter 11 Module 35: Psychological Aspects of Illness and Well-Being Module 36: Promoting Health and Wellness
Chapter 12 Module 39: Psychological Disorders in Perspective
Chapter 13: ALL
Chapter 14 Module 45: Prejudice and Discrimination
Chapter 14 Module 46: Positive and Negative Social Behavior

SECTIONS BELOW INDICATE TOPICS TO KNOW FOR YOUR EXAM.
I RECOMMEND LOOKING AT ANY STUDY GUIDES I’VE POSTED AND YOUR NOTES FROM LECTURES FIRST AND FOREMOST FOR GOOD REVIEW. THEY WILL CONTAIN MOST OF WHAT IS LISTED BELOW. THEN I WOULD LOOK OVER THE CHAPTERS IN THE BOOK FOR MORE INFORMATION AND ANYTHING NOT ON SGs THAT YOU SEE LISTED BELOW!

CHAPTER 5: LEARNING
MODULE 15-CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
1) Learning
2) Habituation
3) Overt Behavior
4) Covert Behavior
5) Ivan Pavlov
6) Classical Conditioning (aka Pavlovian Conditioning, Stimulus-Response Conditioning, or Respondent Conditioning)
a. Neutral Stimulus (NS)
b. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
c. Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
d. Unconditioned Response (UCR)
e. Conditioned Response (CR)
HELPFUL: FIG. 1 (P 171) + FIG. 2 (P 173)
MODULE 16-OPERANT CONDITIONING
7) Thorndike’s Law of Effect
8) B.F. Skinner
9) “Skinner’s Box”
10) Operant Conditioning
a. Positive Reinforcement (RF)
b. Negative Reinforcement (RF)
c. Positive Punishment
d. Negative Punishment
11) Primary Reinforcer
12) Secondary Reinforcer
13) Behavior Modification
14) Schedules of Reinforcement
a) Continuous Reinforcement
b) Intermittent Reinforcement
i. Fixed-Ratio (ex. Every 10 laps you run, you may take a water break) ii. Variable-Ratio (Remember: Variable = Random; ex. Slot machine- no set # of turns taken before you win- it is at random) iii. Fixed-Interval (Remember: interval = time, so ex. Every 30 minutes of class, you get a break) iv. Variable-Interval (ex. Musical chairs- no set amount of time between each pause in music stops)
HELPFUL: REVIEW FIGURE 4 (P 183) AND FIGURE 5 (P. 188)
MODULE 17-COGNITIVE APPROACHES TO LEARNING (SKIP: pp 195-198)
15) Alfred Bandura’s Cognitive Learning Theory
16) Latent Learning
17) Observational Learning

CHAPTER 6: MEMORY

MODULE 18-THE FOUNDATIONS OF MEMORY (SKIP: pp 213-216)
18) The 3 Basic Processes of Memory Utilization (“the 3 R’s”)
a. Encoding (record)
b. Storage (retain)
c. Retrieval (retrieve)
19) Three-System-Approach to Creating Memories
a. Sensory Memory
i. Iconic ii. Echoic
b. Short-Term Memory
i. Chunks/Chunking ii. Rehearsal iii. Elaborative Rehearsal
1. Mnemonics
c. Working Memory (a form of short-term memory)
i. Central Executive Processor ii. Verbal Store iii. Visual Store iv. Episodic Buffer
d. Long-Term Memory
i. Procedural (aka Nondeclarative) Memory ii. Declarative Memory
1. Semantic Memory
2. Episodic Memory
HELPFUL: FIGURE 4 (P 210), FIGURE 5 (P 212)

MODULE 19-RECALLING LONG-TERM MEMORIES (SKIP: BOTTOM OF p. 223- p.226)
20) Recall vs. Recognition
21) Levels of Processing Theory
a. Shallow-Level Processing
b. Intermediate-Level Processing
c. Deep-Level Processing
22) Explicit Memory vs. Implicit Memory
23) Flashbulb Memories
24) Schemas

MODULE 20- FORGETTING: WHEN MEMORY FAILS
25) Failure of Encoding
26) Decay
27) Interference
28) Cue-Dependent Forgetting
29) Anterograde Amnesia (in SG for Module 18)
30) Retrograde Amnesia (in SG for Module 18)
31) Source Amnesia

CHAPTER 7: THINKING, LANGUAGE, AND INTELLIGENCE
PROLOGUE:
32) Cognitive Psychology

MODULE 21: THINKING AND REASONING (SKIP pp. 246-250)
33) Thinking
34) Mental Images
35) Concepts
36) Prototypes
37) Algorithms
38) Heuristics
a. Familiarity Heuristic
b. Availability Heuristic
39)…