Foundations of Psychology
The five major schools of thought in psychology are psychoanalysis, behaviorism, humanistic psychology, Gestalt psychology, and cognitive psychology. However, there are many sub-categories to each of these basic schools each of them deals with all aspects from biological to environmental. The main different schools of psychology that vary both in attitude and in methods of working are these that consist of the Freudian, Jungian and Adlerian schools as well as Gestaltist, behaviorist, and cognitive schools (Psychology. 2010). Behaviorism is the term and school of thought from B. F. Skinner, who mainly focused on observable behavior. . His goal was of relating behavior to experimental conditions. Skinner had several theories in regard to operant conditioning. Skinner believed that learning is a function of overt behavior and changes in an individuals behavior is a result of events that occur in the individual’s environment (Morris & Maisto, 2005).
Psychoanalysis was invented by Sigmund Freud, who believed that the human mind was composed of three elements: the id, the ego, and the superego. This school of thought emphasizes the influence of the unconscious mind on behavior. Psychoanalysis delves into the innermost parts of the mind and reveals the causes of individual thoughts and behaviors. Freud researched repression, immorality of the subconscious, memory, paramnesia, and telepathy. However, this depended on the ability of the individual to give and unbiased account of his or her own experiences (Troland, 1914).
“Humanistic psychology developed as a response to psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Humanistic psychology instead focused on individual free will, personal growth, and self-actualization. Gestalt psychology is based upon the idea that humans experience things as unified wholes. Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember, and learn (Kowalski & Westen, 2009).”
Jungian psychology is also known as analytical psychology centering on forces and motives found in underlying human behavior as found in dreams and mythology. It deals more with the subconscious or unconscious mind than other schools. This school of thought deals with useful techniques for treating those who have suffered severe trauma (Van Eenwyk, 2001).
Adlerian psychology is the social embeddedness of man, which is in contrast to the hereditary or biological basis for human behavior. The self-determination and creativity, which is in contrast to the heredity or environmental factors. The subjectivity of perception as opposed to absolutes. The teleo-analytical interpretation of behavior as opposed to causalistic evaluations of behavior. The holistic approach as opposed to the reductionistic attributes (Dreikurs, 1987). Adlerian psychology is very similar to Gestalt psychology.
The brain regulates and controls all of the physical and psychological functions of the human beings. “The brain is the seat of awareness and reason, the place where learning, memory, and emotions are centered. It is the part of us that decides what to do and whether that decision was right or wrong, and it imagines how things might have turned out if we had acted differently. The spinal cord receives less attention but is no less important to understanding behavior and mental processes (Morris & Maisto, 2005, p. 59).”
The major human endocrine glands include the parathyroid glands, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, ovaries, testes, and the pineal gland. “The pituitary gland is called the “master gland” it controls many other endocrine functions. The pituitary produces the largest number of different hormones and has the widest range of effects on the body’s functions. The pituitary influences blood pressure, thirst, contractions of the uterus during childbirth, milk production, sexual behavior