a) Cities and urbanization
Define urbanization, and associated driving force(s). * The movement of population from rural to urban areaa * The increasing proportion of a population that resides in urban rather than rural places * The physical growth of urban areas * Industrialization * Employment, education, healthcare system, civic facilites, rapid * Driving forces- Education opportunities, health care, and jobs that rural areas are lacking
Indicate urbanization global/regional trends since the 1900s. * 1900’s- 13% urban (220 million) * 1950’s 29% urban (732 million) * 2005- 49% urban (3.2 billion) * 2030- 60% urban (4.9 billion) * Rich world and Latin America urban population- 75% urban * Africa & Asia least urban population- 33% (but experiencing most urban growth)
Explain the meaning of the “Urban Millennium” term. * Developing world- 93% of the growth
Place geographically the largest world cities in 1950, 2000 and 2015. * 1950- London, Tokyo, New York (12 million) Rich world had largest cities * 2000- Sao Paulo, Mexico City, Tokyo (34 million) Latin America dominates largest cities * 2015- Delhi, Mumbai, Tokyo (36 million) South Asia dominates largest cities
Place geographically/name largest urban areas in Latin America. * 90% of all people living in cities are located in Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and Venezuela * Most people in coastal areas and rural-urban migration * Largest cities- Mexico city, Sao Paula (18-20 million) * Buenos Aires, Rio de Janerio (11-13 million people)
Define and explain both urban primacy and the dominant urban form in Latin America. * Primacy- Indicates that a single city is 3-4X larger than other cities in the country * Santiago, Buenos Aires, Mexico City * Form- residential quality declines towards the periphery * Squatter settlements- 1/3 of total urban population * Lack of services and infra structure, informal/self-built housing, overcrowding, informal employment
Define urbanization trends/levels/geography in Sub-Saharan Africa. Place geographically/name largest urban areas in Sub-Saharan Africa. * Uneven urbanization, only 33% urban population, west & south Africa * Primate cites * Lagos, Nigeria * 10 million * 48 X bigger than in 1950 * Rapid Urban growth: 2050- ½ population urban
Name key characteristics of urbanization trends/differences in East Asia, and explain these trends. * China is 37% urban which is very behind compared to the rest of the region because China opened up to economic growth (global market) so much later than these other countries. * What percent urban? Hong Kong 100% urban. Japan 79%, S. Korea 81%, N. Korea 60%, Taiwan 78%, China 37%.
Name dominant urban patterns in S. Korea and Japan. * Japan- Superconurbation * 300 mile Tokaido Corridor- 65% of Japan’s population. * South Korea- Urban primacy. * Seoul 10.78, Pusan 3.80, Taegu 2.26, Inchon 2.20, Kwangju 1.24 (pop. in millions)
What is Tokaido Corridor? * It’s 300 miles between Tokyo and Kyoto and it contains 65% of Japans population. This type of development is called superconurbation.
b) Urbanization in India and China
Indicate key characteristics of urbanization in China: growth rate, largest cities, trends by 2025. * 70% of Chinese population by 2025 will live in cities with more than 1 million people. * 2030- 221 # of cities with more than 1 mill. China will add 400 million city dwellers * Rapid urban growth: 91 cities: 1 million +, Beijing 22 million, Shanghai 20 million. * Low urbanization rate at 46% * Why rapid urban growth: rural to urban migration, foreign direct investment, rapid industrial growth, employment * Crowding, but few slums. Low urban poverty and