georgraphy notes Essay

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Exam Review – Geography Grade 9

Chapter 2: MAPS

1) What is a map projection? What types of distortions do these projections create?

2) Describe and identify different types of maps
General- Purpose Maps – provides many types of info on a map ex. Road maps& atlas maps
Thematic Maps- show info on one particular topic or theme (specific info)
Topographic Maps- use symbols to show features (examine the characteristics of a small area)

Chapter 3: LOCATING PLACES ON A MAP
1) Find direction on a map using compass rose

2) Locate objects or give grid references using military grid
- (refer to worksheet)

3) Identify topographic map symbols
- (refer to worksheet)

4) Determine the local time of a city in Canada based on Canada’s seven time zones
(PUMKINS)
PACIFIC SATANDARED TIME

-YUKON
-B.C
(MAKE)
MOUNTAIN STANDARED TIME

-NWT
-ALBERTA
(CANDY)
CENTRAL STANDARD TIME

- NUNIVUT
-MANITOBA
-SASKATCHEWAN
(EVEN)
EASTERN STANDARED TIME

-QUEBEC
-ONTARIO
(AT)
ATLANTIC STANDARED
TIME

-P.E.I
-NEWBRUNSWICK
-NOVA SCOTIA
(NIGHT)
NEWFOUNDLAND
STANDARED TIME

-NEWFOUNDLAND

Chapter 4- USING MAP SCALES
1) Finding ground or map distance using various types of map scales

FORMULA
*G (GROUND DISTANCE) (G=M X S = __KM)
*M (MAP DISTANCE) (M= G ÷ S= ___ CM)

EXAMPLE:
What is the ground distance between A and B when the scale of the map is 1: 50 000 and map distance is 4 cm?
Given
1:50 000
1 cm = .5 km
4 cm
Required
Ground distance
Analyze
G = M X S
Solve
G = M X S
G = 4 X 0.5
G = 2KM
Sentence
The ground distance between A and B is 2 km

SCALES
RATIO SCALES
1:300 000
DIRECT STATEMENT
1 CM = 3 KM
LINEAR SCALES

*ALWAYS PUT AS 1 CM EX. 2 CM = 42 KM 1 CM = 21 KM

Chapter 11: GEOLOGIC HISTORY
1) Explain the theory of plate tectonics and continental drift:
Plate tectonics- earths outer shell made up of plates (most composed of both a continent and ocean) moving over a layer of hot rock, several hundred kms below earths surface, which flows like slow moving plastic.
Continental drift- Super continent Pangea broke up 200 million years ago and pieces drifted in different directions to current positions

-first person to purpose the theory Alfred Wegener a German geologist
- 1 evidence) jigsaw
- 2 evidence) fossil correlation
-3 evidence) geologic similarities

2) How is Canada’s physical diversity the result of geologic development

3) Explain the rock cycle

4) Name each of the 4 geologic eras and describe the major evens associated with each
Eras
Time Period
Major Geological Events
Major Biological Events
Cenozoic
(recent life)
66-
*Ice sheets covered much of North America
* Continents take on their present shape
*formations of rocky mountains completed
* human beings develop
*age of mammals
* modern forms of life evolve
Mesozoic
245 - 66
*formation of rocky mountains begins
*innuitian mountains formed
*shallow seas in the interior of North America at various times
*age of reptiles, such as dinosaurs
*first flowering plants
*first birds and mammals
Paleozoic
570 - 245
*periods when large parts of North America are covered by shallow seas
* Appalachians formed
*age of amphibians and fish
*first insects
*large swamps – coal formed from this vegetation
*first plants and animals appear on land
Precambrian
(earliest life)
4600 - 570
*Precambrian shields, such as the Canadian Shield, Brazilian Shield, African Shield, and Australian shield are formed
*first multi-celled organisms
*first single-celled organisms
Chapter 12: LANDFORM CONNECTIONS
1) identify and briefly describe Canada’s 5 major landform regions
2) identify the rock types and minerals found in each
3) physical characteristics

Innuitian mountains
*Covered by ice & snow
*short summer, cold…