Command Economy- government ensures everyone has a job so there is virtually no unemployment. Government makes all decisions even what you do for a living. Hires central planning agents for help. (Communist countries like Cuba and North Korea) Positives- for the most part there is no unemployment. Negatives- scarcity of some products, you don’t get to pick your job, low quality.
Market Economy- individuals make all the economic decisions based on what the consumers want. Based on supply and demand. Positives- people get to make all the choices, lower prices, higher quality. Negatives- competition of businesses can fail and unemployment is a concern.
2) Monarchy- ruled by one man whom only cares about his power. Not elected inherited. Power comes from gods (divine rule.) Advantages- no arguments, things get done. There educated and trained for the job. Disadvantages- corruption, people have no say, any law can get passed, turns into a dictatorship, strict class system.
Oligarchy- ruled by a small group (elite.) Wisest, best educated or wealthiest that are in power. “Take power.” Advantages- varied opinions, “wisest” good decisions, more balance in power. Disadvantages- people still have no say in power, struggle, disagreements, can collapse, corrupt.
Democracy- citizens vote upon the laws of the state. Direct- people vote on everything. Indirect (republic)- vote on people (representatives) to make decisions for them. Elected into government. Advantages- nobody is treated unfairly, people have the power, variety of decisions, ensure a fair ruler. Disadvantages- people may make bad decisions, uneducated decisions, slow process, and arguments.
3) Primary sources- source from someone who experienced the event. Ex- a letter written by a survivor, treaty, documents, journal, photo.
4) Secondary sources- second hand, written by someone after the fact. Ex- textbooks, articles.
5) Culture- A way of life for a certain group of people.
6) Ethnocentrism- The belief that one’s own culture is superior to others, inferior to yours.
7) Themes of Geography Location- where something is. Absolute Location (latitude and longitude) and Relative Location (less precise). Place- features and characteristics that give a place its own identity or personality. Physical characteristics would include landforms, weather, plants, and animals. Human characteristics would include language, religion, lifestyle, etc.
Human/Environment Interaction- focuses on how people respond and alter their environment. In order to survive, and thrive, people must make changed to their environment and/ or adapt to condition they cannot change. For example, farms, igloos, and irrigation. Over time people have become increasingly able to manipulate their environment. Ex: we can go through mountains or fly over them. People have also learned to re-route rivers if needed to be.
Region- an area unified by some feature or mixture of features. These features can include language, religion, location, occupation of people, or legal definition such as “country.” Used to generalize about parts of the earth’s surface.
Movement- movement of people, things, and ideas between places… Events in other places can impact you personally. Movement of people can lead to the spread of ideas from one place to another (cultural diffusion). Allows is to see each place is part of a larger system of places, each one dependent on and influenced by others.
8) Old Stone Age- (the Paleolithic Age 2.5 million -> 8,000 bce) It was called “The Ice Age.” They started wearing clothes to protect themselves from the cold. Northern parts of North America, Europe and