Essay HB study guide

Submitted By khyjhcho
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Flink & Penton- Voak:
-bilateral symmetry reflect overall high quality of development (ex. ability to resist environmental perturbations during development)
-symmetrical face signal the ability of an individual to cope with the challenges of his/her environment
-symmetry of bilateral traits positively correlated with genetic heterozygosity
-Scheib, Gangestad, and Thornhill (1999)- found relationship between women’s attractiveness ratings of faces and symmetry even when symmetry cues were removed by presenting only the left or right half of each face => attractive features other than symmetry can be used to assess physical condition
-other studies (Thornhill과 반대)- symmetry is more readily perceived by the visual system than other perceptual cues are
-computer generated average faces are rated as more attractive than almost all of the individual faces they are constructed from
-Halberstadt and Rhodes (2000)- found strong relationship between averageness and attractiveness also for non-face objects (ex. drawings of dogs, birds, watches) => humans have general attraction to prototypical exemplars
-exactly what features contribute to the preference for averageness, and whether these effects represent an adaptation or by-products of other adaptations, remains unclear
*hormone markers:
-hormone markers in pubertal males, high testosterone-to-estrogen ratio facilitates the lateral growth of the cheekbones, mandibles, and chin; the forward growth of the bones of the eyebrow ridges; and lengthening of the lower facial bone
-high estrogen may signal that female’s immune system is of high quality that it can deal with the toxic effects of high estrogen
-testosterone suppresses the immune system
-relative hairlessness and smooth skin in women may signal fertility because of its association with low androgen and high estrogen
-skin infection may denote disturbance of the production of androgen and estrogen and reduced reproductive ability
-males evaluate females’ skin texture, characteristics of age and facial shape in judging facial beauty
-Perret et al (1998)- females’ preferences regarding male faces are apparently driven by stereotypical personality attributions
*3 ingredients of sexual strategies theory:
1. human mating is inherently strategic; we are completely unaware of why we find certain qualities attractive in a mate
2. mating strategies are context-dependent; people behave differently depending on whether the situation presents itself as a short-term or long-term mating prospect
3. men and women have faced different mating problems over the course of human evolution and have evolved different strategies
*hypothesis 1:Short-term mating is more important for men than women
-sexes do not differ in their stated proclivities for seeking a long-term mate. BUT men reported a greater interest in seeking a short-term sexual partner than did women
-men desired a greater number of sex partners than reported by the women for every interval of time
-for all shorter time intervals, men were more likely to consider sexual intercourse
-Clark&Hatfield study (lecture 시간에 선생님이 알려주셨던 스터디임)
*hypothesis 2: Men seeking a short-term mate will solve the problem of identifying women who are sexually accessible
-men find promiscuity mildly desirable in short-term mate, but undesirable in a long-term mate
-qualities that signal sexual inaccessibility will be disliked by men seeking short-term mates
-lack of sexual experience is slightly valued by men in a long-term mate
*hypothesis 3: Men seeking a short-term mate will minimize commitment and investment
-attribute of wanting a commitment was strongly desirable in a long-term mate but strongly undesirable in a short-term mate
-although women strongly wanted commitment from a long-term mate, it was only mildly undesirable in a short-term mate
*hypothesis 4: Men seeking a short-term mate will solve the