DEVELOPED COUNTRIES: also known as industrialised countries, they are countries with well-developed industry, mining or agriculture sectors and which, therefor enjoy a health economy based on trade.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A DEVELOPED COUNTRY:
-high standard of living
-high life expectancy
-low under 5 mortality
-adequate food supply
-high literacy rates
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: countries that generally have a low gross domestic product. Being less developed means that these countries have less access to technology, and have poor industry and limited trade arrangement.
-high rates of poverty caused by debt, colonisation and international trade arrangements.
-limited healthcare facilities
-low literacy rates
-little in the way of social security systems
THESE FACTORS CONTRIBUTE TO SHORT LIFE EXPECTANCY, HIGH MORBIDITY AND LOW LITERACY AND IMMUNISATION RATES.
A= VERY LOW CHILD MORTALITY, LOW ADULT MORTALITY
B= LOW CHILD MORTALITY, LOW CHILD MORTALITY
C=LOW CHILD MORTALITY, HIGH ADULT MORTALITY
D-HIGH CHILD MORTALITY, HIGH ADULT MORTALITY
E=HIGH CHILD MORTALITY, VERY HIGH ADULT MORTALITY countries that are classified as strata level A can be considered as developed, while those at strata D or E can be considered developing.
COMPARING HEALTH STATUS
INFANT MORTALITY RATES
UNDER 5 MORTALITY RATES
CAUSES OF MORTALITY causes of death such as perinatal conditions, diarrhoeal disease and infectious and parasitic diseases have been common causes of death in many developing countries for some time, however, many of these countries are now experiencing an increase in the number of deaths from non-communicable conditions such as cancer and CVD. HIV/AIDS is the 6th leading cause of death globally. Some die as a result of complications during birth, prematurity or low birth weight, and many others from preventable causes such as diarrhoea and malnutrition.
THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX
A measurement of human development that combines indicators of life expectancy, educational levels and income.
THE IMPACT OF INCOME
-low income reduces the ability to access adequate health services
-in developing countries most of the money is spent on defence which mean little is spent on resources such as education and healthcare.
-a country that is experiencing poverty is typically unable to provide for its citizens such as resources as safe water and sanitation, education, social security and adequate healthcare.
-the consequences include are low literacy rates and immunisation, high maternal and infant mortality, and high rates of infectious disease.
-families living in poverty or who have low income have few opportunities and choices to improve their situation. Often children are not able to attend school.
THE IMPACT OF EDUCATION
- not being able to read and write can leads to a reduction in health status.
-in developing countries many children are sent out to work from a very young age instead of going to school
-children who attend school will have more employment options as adults and usually experience better health.
-without an education, people may not be aware of health issues such as safe sex and sexually transmitted diseases
-may not be able to get the knowledge of how to prevent illnesses
education affects health in a number of ways. Education promotes literacy, which can lead to higher socio-economic status. This is in turn improves access to essentials such as food, shelter and healthcare. Educated people are more likely to have an understanding of health promotion messages and take notice of them.
GENDER EQUILITY two thirds of the 800 million people in the world who lack basic literacy skills are female. 500,000 women die each year from complications during pregnancy. 99% in developing countries.