Essay on History: Cold War and ho Chi Minh

Submitted By carceneaux100
Words: 2267
Pages: 10

Cold war
1. President Eisenhower 1952-60
a. US strong in cold war
i. Arms race-missiles ii. NATO iii. Economics
b. Sputnik
i. First satellite in space
1. Soviets begin launching other things into space
2. Public opinion, fear, space weapons
a. Eisenhower tries to calm public, popularity falls
c. U2-secret spy plane, flies over soviet union
i. Soviet military base photographs ii. One gets shot down, pilot is captured
d. Third world-group of neutral countries, former colonies
i. New governments ii. Economically third world=poor
1. CIA overthrow of
a. Iran-anti American leaders
b. Guatemala-anti American
2. Successful overthrow
2. Kennedy 1960-63
a. Berlin wall-1961
i. Berlin in east Germany-communist, controlled by soviets ii. East-communist, west-free
1. East Germans flee to west Germany
2. Soviets build wall- encircles city, tall long, surrounded by soviet troops with guns iii. Americans saw wall as symbol of soviet power
b. Cuba-Fidel Castro
i. CIA-to overthrow Castro ii. Bay of pigs invasion-CIA secretly invades Cuba
1. Failure, Cuba becomes ally to soviets, communist iii. Cuban missile crisis
1. Soviets build secret missiles
2. US demands
a. With drawl of missiles
b. Military blockade-navy and air
c. Threat of war iv. Negotiations
1. No face to face-mediators
2. Agreement
a. Soviets agree to with draw missiles
b. US agrees not to invade Cuba
c. Secret US withdrawal of missiles from turkey
3. Kennedy claims victory
Civil Rights Movement
1. Age of segregation
a. Exclusion of voters
b. Job discrimination
c. Customer discrimination
d. Schools
e. Racist violence
2. Great migration of southern blacks out of the south
3. A. Philip Randolph
a. Black union leader, successful, famous
b. Group gets good wages
4. NAACP- largest civil rights organization, still small
a. Court cases-challenges white primary law
b. Thurgood Marshall-attorney for NAACP, takes cases for civil rights to supreme court, successful
5. The military
a. Discrimination policy
b. NAACP publicity for unfair policies
c. Truman ends discrimination policies
1. Brown vs. board of education
a. Thurgood Marshall- ruling that segregation in public school is illegal
b. Most southern whites opposed
c. Little rock Arkansas-governor leads opposition to supreme court
d. Eisenhower forced to take action, sends army to protect black students
2. Montgomery bus boycott
a. State capitol of Alabama
b. Rosa parks challenges city bus policy, arrested
i. Member of NAACP
c. Martin Luther King Jr-leader of boycott-1st civil rights activist
i. Young, not famous yet ii. Good leader, keeps boycott for year iii. Arrested buy courts rule against city
Kennedy 1960-63
1. Sit ins-efforts to integrate businesses, food places
a. Caused violence, police arrested blacks, few successful
2. Evasive in response
3. Freedom rides on interstate buses
4. Forces Kennedy to take action to protect freedom riders
5. University of Alabama-Governor George Wallace
a. Segregation supporter-becomes racist leader
b. Kennedy integrates U of A, Wallace loses

Civil Rights for Mexicans
1. League of United Latin American Citizens-LULAC
a. Pre WWII, grew after
b. Largest organization for Mexican Americans
c. Patriotic
d. Delgado vs. Bastrop ISD-supreme court case, LULAC wins
i. Unequal schools
2. GI forum
a. Dr Hector Garcia-vet from WWII
3. Henry B. Gonzales-reformer
a. San Antonio, first Mexican elected to congress
b. Democrat
4. John F Kennedy discriminated against as a catholic
a. Defender of catholic Mexican Americans
5. Civil rights act of 1964
a. Made racial discrimination illegal for all groups
6. Cesar Chavez
a. Catholic ideas, civil rights leader
b. Created union for farm workers
i. California 1960’s ii. Strike against wealthy farm owners, consumer boycott, nationwide iii. March to state capitol to put pressure on gov't
Other Movements in 1960’s
1. Peaceful Movements