Essay on History Of A P And Levels Of Organization

Submitted By dakari90
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History of Anatomy and Physiology &
Chapter 1
The Sciences of Anatomy and Physiology;
McKinley, Michael P

Instructor Jennifer Evens

What is…?
• Anatomy
– Study of structure

• Physiology
– Study of function

Complimentary/not separable/form and function
When you see a structure you ask how does it work. Anatomy make it possible

Comparison of Anatomy and Physiology (Table 1.1)

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Figure 1.1a

Study the small intestine including its relationship to the rest of the body

(a) Anatomists
Focus on the form and structures of the small intestine



Large intestine Small intestine ANATOMISTS
Describe the multiple layers in the wall of the small intestine

Study the tissues of the small intestine and the cells that compose them




Section of intestinal wall

(top left): © Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc./Phototake; (top right): © Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc./Visuals Unlimited;
(bottom left):© Dr. Gopal Murti/Visuals Unlimited; (bottom right): © EM Research Services, Newcastle University

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Figure 1.1b

Wave of contraction

Small intestine


(b) Physiologists

Focus on the function of the small intestine

Examine how the muscles of the small intestine propel food through the digestive tract
Propulsion of bolus forward.

Anatomists and
Know form and function of the small intestine are interrelated

Describe the mechanisms by which different nutrients are broken down

Fat globules

Bile salts

Amino acids

cell of intestinal villus

Study the mechanisms by which different nutrients are absorbed Blood capillary Lymphatic capillary Rome and Greece

The Great Philosophers



Pictures courtesy of Wikipedia

Greek and Rome Legacy
• Aristotle
– 384-322 BCE; Born in Northern Greece to the court physician
– Study under Plato
– Written 150 philosophical treatises; from biological and physics to morals and aesthetics (1 st to write on both anatomy and physiology)
– Works in zoology described
• Embryological development of a chick
• Distinguished whales and dolphins from fish
• Noticed some sharks give birth to live young

– Classifications of animals
• Broader than today’s classes
• Based on blood and without blood (red blood) [similar to vertebrates and invertebrates]

– Complex structures are built from a variety of smaller structures

• Hippocrates
– 460 BC; Born in Greece
– Known as the founder of medicine “Father of Medicine”
– Based on the observations and study of the human body
– Body treated as whole not parts
– Healing comes from rest, good diet, fresh air and cleanliness
– Feelings come from the brain not the heart
– Oath of Medical Ethics

• Galen
– Born in Pergamum in Asia Minor in 131 C.E.
– Famed surgeon to the gladiators
– Summoned to Rome to be the physician of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius
– Spent the rest of his life at the Court Writing Corpus of Medical Works
– His work became Dogma for the time, and the method for observation and investigation were how methods of modern research arose

Birth of Modern Medicine
Antony van Leeuwenhoek

Picture courtesy of

Picture courtesy of

Picture courtesy of

Matthias Schleiden

Andreas Vesalius
Picture courtesy of Theodor Schwann

Picture courtesy of

Picture courtesy of Modern Medicine
• Andreas Vesalius
– (1514-64) Catholic church released prohibition against cadaver dissection (suspicious death); theatre of medical students; first to publish accurate drawings