Essay on History Study Notes Federation

Submitted By emily070
Words: 1057
Pages: 5

History Study Notes – Federation
Federation
Reasons for:

Reasons Against:

Prior Federation:
Divided into 6 colonies
Still part of British Empire - laws made by colonies > approved by British houses of parliament
Each colony = own governor > report to British government & own colonial parliament
Process for Federation:
1. Federal Council 1885
First series of meeting -> lead to creation of Commonwealth of Aus (1901)
Sydney, abandoned > lack of interest (NSW & SA)

2. Tenterfield Speech 1889
NSW governor Sir Henry Parkes > favor of federation
Brought colonial leaders together – first time > discuss bringing nation together

3. Parliamentary Conventions 1891, 1897, 1898
1891 = first convention in Sydney (inspired > speech)  start drafts on constitution (unsuccessful > no interest – depression)
1897 Australiasian convention – 2nd draft constitution  June 1898 = 2nd draft complete – Australian Natives Association proposed delegates (each state) agree on constitution > put to people of NSW, VIC, SA & TAS in referendum. (FAILED)

4. Referenda
2nd referendum = all colonies except WA agreed 1899
Commonwealth of Aus Constitution Act 1900:
Act of British Parliament & signed by Queen Vic  consent given before Federation = law
Soon after,WA agreed – separate referendum (1900)

5. 1st January 1901  Federation achieved!

Celebrations
Sydney = parades (over 200 000 ppl gathered)
Flag raised Melbourne’s Exhibition Building signaling beginning of new government

Earl of Hopetoun = first governor-general (representing Queen Vic)
Edmund Barton = first Prime-Minister

White Australia
Reasons for White Australia Policy:
Aus = new nation, mainly British origin > sense of isolation & fear for larger Asian countries
Racial superiority – universal view at the time => British & Australians believed more superior to other races. (Japanese considered themselves – more superior)
Australian workers feared non-white people from Asia – take their jobs (work for less money & accept lower working conditions)

1945 – 6 million people from over 100 nations migrated to Australia
All political parties agreed Australia = white => excluding “colored” immigrants
Immigration Restriction Act 1901
* First act of parliament  set up the White Australia policy
* No political division > all major politicians supported bill
* Introduced by Edmund Barton Dictation Test
What?
Mechanism allowing “White Australia”
People seeking entry > country, required to do fifty-word written dictation test in “a European language directed by the officer.
Between 1902 – 1958 (abolished by Menzies government)
Labor Party concerned, Japanese = more educated => pass dictation test
Japanese = offended by White Australia policy & suggestion white race = more superior – Asian race. Britain seeking to form alliance w/ Japan = nervous  (did not support policy = pressure on Aus)
How?
Law said that a person – denied entry into country if person fails to write out at dictation, fifty-words of a European language dictated by an officer.
Designed to do?
Restrict “undesirable” immigrants from entering Australia (Africans, Asians, Polynesians)
If “white” immigrant = unsuitable – given in another European language (not English)
Racial exclusion = intent & result
Successful against Chinese (“chous”)

Pacific Islanders Labourers Act
What?
Pacific Islanders Labourers Act deported “undesirables” already in Aus
“Undesirables” = Islanders working in Queensland sugar industry (kanakas)  cheap labour
Kanakas were a
Why?
Barton wanted to deport kanakas to compensate farmers & introduce white labour
Designed to do?
Remove Pacific Islanders from Australia
Law = no more islanders IN & those born  deported (1901 – 9,000 kanakas working in Australia – 7,000 deported)

Voting Rights
Franchise = Right to vote in federal elections
Indigenous Voting Rights
Section 127:
No Aboriginals counted in census
Section 51:
Federal government power to pass laws about “the people of any race other than the…