In the 4th century Constantine the Great ruled the Byzantine Empire and established a new capital at Constantinople
The Byzantine Empire succeeded it to flourish for almost a thousand years.
Oghuz Turks began migrating into Anatolia during the Turkic expansion
After the victory over forces of the Byzantine Empire in 1071 at the Battle of Manzikert, the Seljuq dynasty controlled Turkey until the country was invaded by the Mongols.
While under Mongol rule, several small Turkish states were born.
After finally conquering Istanbul, the Ottoman state would become a large empire, called the Ottoman Empire in Europe.
Next, the Empire expanded to Eastern Anatolia, the Caucasus, the Middle East, Central Europe and North Africa.
The Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th century, but they did not fully reach the technological advance in military capabilities of the Western powers in the 19th century
During the First World War the Ottoman Empire was allied with Germany and Austria-Hungary and was defeated.
Most of Anatolia and Eastern Thrace was occupied by the Allied powers.
To resist the occupation, a cadre of young military officers formed a government in Ankara.
The elected leader of the Ankara Government, Mustafa Kemal organized a successful war of independence against the Allied powers.
After the liberation of Anatolia and East Thrace, the Republic of Turkey was established in 1923 with its capital at Ankara.
The first Gulf War…