Church History Essay

Submitted By Wconrad17
Words: 5549
Pages: 23

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Scientific Revolution:
Copernicus and travels around the sun and thus is not the center of the universe
Does science undermine the idea of God?
Church tended to ally herself with more conservative elements of society

Church and State:
Should issues of the church and state be separate?
During the time of enlightenment this became an obvious issue... and it would happen

Create a diamanté poem describing each ism

Achieve Truth
Uninvolved Creator God
Accepted only sense knowledge
Reliance on reason
Fundamental criteria

Aristocratic Opposition
Inspired by Enlightment
Equality of All Citizens
Right to Vote
Religious Liberty

Five Senses
Reject Religious Doctrine
No Religious Authority/Beliefs
Reality is Material
Percieved Reality

Natural Religion
God Does Exist
God Refrains From Interference
God Is Watchmaker
Reason Governs

United Nation
Countries are Superior
Gave Rise to Heresies
Hating Anything Foreign social conditioning

Separate State
Free from Church
States neutral in belief
Movement toward Modernization
State Religion

1st Vatican Council (1869-1870):
"Called to address the "Isms" and other issues of the Age of Enlightenment

Major Accomplisments of the Council:
Declaration of papal infallibillity (pope is preserved from error when teaching dogmatically or ex cathedra (from the chair) on matters of faith and morals...truly apostolic
Emphasis on the spiritual authority of the Church. By 1870 church lost its secular power and the focus was now fully on the spiritual.
The Church does not need to fear the world but can learn from it...can reach out to the world without sacrificing an authentic presentation of the Gospel.

The Renaissance:
The natural and the human...more than the divine

The act of reforming, the state of being reformed
to put or change into an improved form or condition
To amend or improve by change of form or removal of faults for abuses

The Catholic Reformation:
Jesuits: the most important order to help the Catholic Reform
Founded by Ignatius Loyola, a Basque knight
Wounded in battle and encountered God
Took traditional vows (poverty, chastity, obedience) and a fourth obedience to the pope as a commitment to fight against the Protestants
Known for missionary work and starting schools and universities

The Council of Trent:
1545-1563 reform of many of the abuses that the Protestants challenged
Papal supremacy reaffirmed
Scripture and Tradition are fonts of revelation
Salvation is God's free gift and we respond to that grace
Transubstantiation is reaffirmed
Mass is a true extension of Calvary
Sacrament of Penance is only way to forgive mortal sins after baptism
There are 7 sacraments
Purgatory exists
Clerical abuses were corrected
Priestly training give top priority
Church law regarding daily life corrected
Created index of Forbidden Books
Paul said, "It is not by grace alone that you are saved, it is a grace of God"

How'd we get here?

First four:
French king Philip IV, buoyed by a growing sense of nationalism, had refused to obey Pope Boniface VIII and had Boniface arrested and beaten before his death. Philip then manipulated the election of a Frenchman, Pope Clement V, after the brief reign of Boniface’s successor. The French king now controlled the papacy.
The Avignon papacy (1309–1377) scandalized the Church’s opponents, including the Englishman William of Ockham whose writings called for a democratic form of Church government.
Battle of Orleans (1428–1429). It was during this battle that the young girl St. Joan of Arc, the Maid of Orleans, led a force that defeated the English, thus turning