how to do it Essay

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MLA Citation Examples (7th ed.)
Based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed., by Joseph Gibaldi and the Honolulu Community College Library (

The Modern Language Association (MLA) Style is widely used for identifying research sources. In MLA style you briefly credit sources with parenthetical citations in the text of your paper, and give the complete description of each source in your Works Cited list.

The Works Cited list is a list of all the sources used in your paper, double-spaced arranged alphabetically by author's last name, OR when there is no author, by the first word of the title (except A, An or The)

There is a one-to-one correspondence between your parenthetical citations and your Works Cited list. For each source you cite in your paper (in a parenthetical citation), you must have a corresponding citation on your Works Cited page. Conversely, you can’t have sources cited on your Works Cited page that you haven’t referenced (in a parenthetical citation) in your paper.

Parenthetical Citations in the Text of Your Paper
Write the last name of the author (or, if there is no author, use the first word in your Works Cited entry for that source) and the page number of the information in parentheses at the end of the sentence:
The first gambling website “appeared in 1995, and online gambling has since become the most lucrative Internet business” (Will 92).

Or, you can embed the name of the author in your sentence:
George Will, a reporter for Newsweek reported that the first gambling website “appeared in 1995, and online gambling has since become the most lucrative Internet business” (92).

You can also paraphrase instead of quoting:
The first gambling website came online in 1995, and internet gambling has become the Internet's most profitable business ever since (Will 92).

In your Works Cited List
Will, George F. “Electronic Morphine.” Newsweek 25 Nov. 2002: 92. Print.


Index (yeah, I know it’s on the front)
anthology, 3 corporate author, 3 editions, 3 editor, 2 encyclopedias, 3 government agency as author, 3 one author, 2 two or more authors, 2 two or more works by the same author, 2
Electronic Sources
Articles in online periodicals, 6
Databases, 6
Websites (general), 5-6
Interviews, 5
Magazine Articles, 4
Newspaper Articles, 4
Television Programs, 5
Video Recordings, 5

Author. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Print.
Take the title from the title page, not the cover.

One Author
Brinkley, Alan. The Unfinished Nation. New York: Knopf, 1993. Print.

If the person named on the title page is the editor, rather than the author, add a comma then the abbreviation “ed.” Carpenter, Allan, ed. Facts About the Cities. New York: Wilson, 1992. Print.

Two or More Authors
List the names in the order they appear on the title page.
Only the first author's name should be reversed: Last Name, First Name.
Use a comma between the authors' names. Place a period after the last author's name.

Rowe, Richard, and Larry Jeffus. The Essential College Reader: An Interdisciplinary Approach. New York: Norton, 2000. Print.
If there are more than three authors, name only the first and add “et al.” or give all the names in the order they appear on the title page, reversing the first and last name for the first author only.

Randall, John E., et al. Fish of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997. Print.
Hutchinson, Samuel, Amy Adams, and Maria Boyce. Art and Culture. New York: Children’s Press, 2008. Print.
If the persons named on the title page are editors, not authors, add a comma after the final name, then the abbreviation "eds."

Clute, John, and Peter Nicholls, eds. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St.…