Hw 33 34 Essay

Submitted By Jeffrey-Wang
Words: 723
Pages: 3

HW 33
Incumbents- those already holding office.

Casework- Activities of members of Congress that help constituents as individuals, particularly by cutting through bureaucratic red tape to get people what they think they a have a right to get

Pork barrel- Federal projects, grants and contracts available to state and local governments, businesses, colleges and other institutions in a congressional district

11.1- Congress has proportionately more whites and males than the general population, and members of congress are wealthier and better educated, and more likely to be white males than the average American. although they are not descriptively representative of americans, they may engage in substantive representation

11.2- Incumbents usually win elections, because they usually draw weak opponents, are usually better known and better funded than their opponents, typically represent constituencies where a clear majority share their party party affiliation, and can claim credit for aiding their constituents. however, incumbents can lose if they are involved in a scandal, if their policy position are substantially out of line with their constituents, or if the boundaries of their districts are redrawn to reduce the percentage of their constituents identifying with their party.
HW 34
Bicameral legislature – a legislature divided into two houses- Congress.

House Rules Committee- The committee in the House of Representatives that reviews most bills coming from a house committee before they go to the full House.

Filibuster- A strategy unique to the Senate whereby opponents of a piece of legislation try to talk it to death, based on the tradition of unlimited debate.

Speaker of the House- An office mandated by the Constitution. The Speaker is chosen in practice by the majority party, has both formal and informal powers, and is second in line to succeed to the presidency should that office become vacant.

Majority leader - The principle partisan ally of the Speaker of the House or the party's wheel horse in the Senate. The majority leader is responsible for scheduling bills, influencing committee assignments, and rounding up votes in behalf of the party's legislative positions.

Whips- Party leaders who work with the majority leader or minority leader to count votes beforehand and lean on waverers whose votes are crucial to a bill favored by the party.

Minority leader - The principal leader of the minority party in the House of Representatives or in the Senate.

Standing committees - Separate subject-matter committees in each house of Congress that handle bills in different policy areas.

Joint committees - Congressional committees on a few subject-matter areas with membership drawn from both houses

Conference committees - Congressional committees formed when the Senate and the House pass a particular bill in different forms. Party leadership appoints members from each house to iron out the differences and bring back a…