Beginning in the 1880s, many American’s wanted to make the United States a worldly power due to economic and military competition from other nations, as well as the ever increasing feelings of cultural superiority. In order to further the United States’ worldwide hegemony, America began looking at Imperialism—the economic and political domination of a strong nation over other weaker nations—as a way to reach this supremacy. These feelings of superiority and desire for global dominance were prompted by the ideas known as: Anglo-Saxonism, the belief that white Europeans were destined to dominate the planet, Manifest Destiny, the belief that it was God’s intent that American’s would dominate the planet, and Jingoism, a form of hyper-nationalism fostered by promoters and newspaper editors. The commencement of foreign involvement began in 1853 when a naval expedition was led into Tokyo bay in order to negotiate a trade treaty with Japan by Commodore Matthew C. Perry. A treaty was established and signed by both sides, which helped to Westernize Japan and usher in the enhancement of the Japanese navy. As trade with Japan and their close neighbor, China, flourished, many Americans became interested in Hawaii due to the fact that ships traveling between China and the United States regularly sojourned there. When American settlers learned that the climate and soil of Hawaii were apt for yielding sugarcane, Hawaii’s fate was sealed. A group of planters (with the help of marines from Boston) forced Queen Liliuokalani, queen of Hawaii, to give up power and set up a provision government. The planters requested that the United States annex Hawaii, but President Cleveland contradicted imperialism. Five years later, William McKinney approved of the annexation; it was carried out. In 1889, a conference was held in Washington, D.C. where seventeen Latin American nations were in attendance. This assemble was in large part due to the exploits of James G. Blaine, who served as secretary of state in two administrations and strongly believed in Pan-Americanism—the idea that the United States and Latin America should work together. The conference failed to accomplish any of Blain’s goals, but it did create the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics, an organization that advocated for mutual collaboration among the nations of the Western Hemisphere. Later, the organization would be known as the Organization of American States (OAS). In the late 1800s, three pending conflicts opened the American peoples’ and Government’s eyes to the involvement in transoceanic affairs: Germany’s attempt at usurping the Samoa Island, Chilean mob attacking American sailors, and the backing of Venezuela against Great Britain. Although, these conflicts were solved peacefully, it helped to show the United States weakness; it’s navy. In 1890, Captain Afred T. Mahan—an officer in the United States navy who taught at the Navel War College—made the argument that America needed a stronger and more modern fleet in a bestselling, rhetorical opus called The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783. After making his argument, Mahan, recognized that building a modern navy meant that the United States needed to acquire territory overseas for naval bases. Naval bases would allow ships to refuel and resupply before they were sent onward to their destination. In congress, two paramount senators, Henry Cabot Lodge and Albert J. Beveridge, fostered the idea of reconstructing of the navy—as did President McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt. By 1890, the United States of America was well on its way to attaining the title of one of the world’s top naval powers. One of the most renowned ships of this era was the U.S.S. Maine, even though it was for a pernicious reason. On February 15, 1898, the U.S.S. Maine was anchored in Havana harbor when it exploded for a perplexing reason. Two-hundred and sixty-six of the three-hundred and fifty-four officers and sailors were killed in the blast.
The decision whether or not to annex the Philippines was a huge subject of issue in United States history. America was a country that supported the idea of imperialism at the time. Imperialism is the desire to become a world power and the political and economic domination of a strong nation over a weaker one. Although the United States would gain many benefits from the annexation of the Philippines, they would also be going against basic American ethics that they had established many years before…
isolationism, intervention, and imperialism. Firstly, American refusal to give aid to Hungarian patriots in 1849 is a prime example of isolationism. The United States’ attempts to mediate the Venezuela-Great Britain dispute in 1895 shows the American policy of intervention. Finally, the annexation of Samoa in 1899 shows American imperialism.
In 1848, citizens of what is now Hungary revolted against the massive Austrian empire in an attempt to become an independent state. Due to economic and political…
of Hawaii in the 1900’s is categorized as imperialism. Throughout the late 19th century and the early 20th century the United States of America was growing toward the idea of imperialism. When Hawaii was discovered in 1778 by Captain James Cook it would not be unscathed by the policy of imperialism. The Queen of Hawaii greatly objected the annexation of Hawaii. She believed that Hawaii should be ruled by the natives but she had no choice because imperialism reached the land.
The U.S wanted Hawaii…
The United State’s Decision to Imperialize
Between the 1800s and World War II, the United States had many opportunities to
imperialize and annex other counties. What if the United States did not imperialize and annex
countries? The US would be far behind other countries, economically, politically, and socially.
All these countries like Great Britain, Belgium, Germany, and Japan wanted to extend their
powers to foreign land and the United States wanted to be like everyone else…
Naval base in the Caribbean
• Puerto Rico- the U.S. had little interest in his area, but invaded as it was envisioned by the US Naval College
5. In your own words provide three of the most powerful reasons that supported imperialism and annexation of the Philippines.
One reason supporting the annexation of the Philippines was the imperialistic competition between other nations. Some saw that if the U.S. did not take it than other nations like Germany, Britain, or Japan would…
In the late 1800’s the United States expanded outwards, all over international waters; however, not even historians have an exact idea as to why America decided to do so during this time period. There is a plethora of ideas that have been toyed with in order to try and answer the question, “Why did the U.S. expand overseas in the 1800’s?” ranging from simply, the want for money all the way to social darwinism. Although, the answer is a combination of both, ideological reasons, such as manifest destiny…
Imperialism is defined as a policy that extends a country's power and influence through military force. An example of this would be the United States annexing Hawaiian islands in 1900. This made Hawaii a U.S. territory. Since American missionaries and whalers came to the Hawaiian Islands and eventually settled there and growing sugar, becoming Hawaii's main export. Because former Americans started to dominate Hawaii, the United states have Hawaii a favored nation status, which allowed imports from…
The concept of American Imperialism has been in the country’s mind ever since the colonial times and Manifest Destiny. Over time, many wars have been fought, lives lost, and countries annexed and released; still, the debate of the ethics of imperialism still continues. France, Britain, and Spain have all had their attempts at worldwide colonization, but our founding fathers founded this country upon anti-imperialist principles because they knew how the failures of other countries, like Britain, showed…
an open theme in American foreign policy. This was that merchants did not need colonies or war of conquest if they could just have free access to markets. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts also supported imperialism and wrote in a magazine. Instead of two sides with pro imperialism Roosevelt and Lodge against anti imperialists led by William Jennings Bryan and Carl Schurz there was a third coalition of business men intellectuals and politicians who opposed traditional colonialism and advocated…
Chapter 18-1 Notes
Imperialism- policy of extending control over weaker nations.
In 1800s, Europeans divide up most of Africa, compete for China.
Desire for Military Strength
Admiral Alfred T. Mahan urges U.S. to build up navy to compete.
U.S. builds modern battleships, becomes third largest naval power.
Thirst for New Markets
U.S. needs raw materials, new markets for goods.
Foreign trade: solution to overproduction, unemployment, depression