Beginning in the 1880s, many American’s wanted to make the United States a worldly power due to economic and military competition from other nations, as well as the ever increasing feelings of cultural superiority. In order to further the United States’ worldwide hegemony, America began looking at Imperialism—the economic and political domination of a strong nation over other weaker nations—as a way to reach this supremacy. These feelings of superiority and desire for global dominance were prompted by the ideas known as: Anglo-Saxonism, the belief that white Europeans were destined to dominate the planet, Manifest Destiny, the belief that it was God’s intent that American’s would dominate the planet, and Jingoism, a form of hyper-nationalism fostered by promoters and newspaper editors. The commencement of foreign involvement began in 1853 when a naval expedition was led into Tokyo bay in order to negotiate a trade treaty with Japan by Commodore Matthew C. Perry. A treaty was established and signed by both sides, which helped to Westernize Japan and usher in the enhancement of the Japanese navy. As trade with Japan and their close neighbor, China, flourished, many Americans became interested in Hawaii due to the fact that ships traveling between China and the United States regularly sojourned there. When American settlers learned that the climate and soil of Hawaii were apt for yielding sugarcane, Hawaii’s fate was sealed. A group of planters (with the help of marines from Boston) forced Queen Liliuokalani, queen of Hawaii, to give up power and set up a provision government. The planters requested that the United States annex Hawaii, but President Cleveland contradicted imperialism. Five years later, William McKinney approved of the annexation; it was carried out. In 1889, a conference was held in Washington, D.C. where seventeen Latin American nations were in attendance. This assemble was in large part due to the exploits of James G. Blaine, who served as secretary of state in two administrations and strongly believed in Pan-Americanism—the idea that the United States and Latin America should work together. The conference failed to accomplish any of Blain’s goals, but it did create the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics, an organization that advocated for mutual collaboration among the nations of the Western Hemisphere. Later, the organization would be known as the Organization of American States (OAS). In the late 1800s, three pending conflicts opened the American peoples’ and Government’s eyes to the involvement in transoceanic affairs: Germany’s attempt at usurping the Samoa Island, Chilean mob attacking American sailors, and the backing of Venezuela against Great Britain. Although, these conflicts were solved peacefully, it helped to show the United States weakness; it’s navy. In 1890, Captain Afred T. Mahan—an officer in the United States navy who taught at the Navel War College—made the argument that America needed a stronger and more modern fleet in a bestselling, rhetorical opus called The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783. After making his argument, Mahan, recognized that building a modern navy meant that the United States needed to acquire territory overseas for naval bases. Naval bases would allow ships to refuel and resupply before they were sent onward to their destination. In congress, two paramount senators, Henry Cabot Lodge and Albert J. Beveridge, fostered the idea of reconstructing of the navy—as did President McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt. By 1890, the United States of America was well on its way to attaining the title of one of the world’s top naval powers. One of the most renowned ships of this era was the U.S.S. Maine, even though it was for a pernicious reason. On February 15, 1898, the U.S.S. Maine was anchored in Havana harbor when it exploded for a perplexing reason. Two-hundred and sixty-six of the three-hundred and fifty-four officers and sailors were killed in the blast.
of Hawaii in the 1900’s is categorized as imperialism. Throughout the late 19th century and the early 20th century the United States of America was growing toward the idea of imperialism. When Hawaii was discovered in 1778 by Captain James Cook it would not be unscathed by the policy of imperialism. The Queen of Hawaii greatly objected the annexation of Hawaii. She believed that Hawaii should be ruled by the natives but she had no choice because imperialism reached the land.
The U.S wanted Hawaii…
The United State’s Decision to Imperialize
Between the 1800s and World War II, the United States had many opportunities to
imperialize and annex other counties. What if the United States did not imperialize and annex
countries? The US would be far behind other countries, economically, politically, and socially.
All these countries like Great Britain, Belgium, Germany, and Japan wanted to extend their
powers to foreign land and the United States wanted to be like everyone else…
an open theme in American foreign policy. This was that merchants did not need colonies or war of conquest if they could just have free access to markets. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts also supported imperialism and wrote in a magazine. Instead of two sides with pro imperialism Roosevelt and Lodge against anti imperialists led by William Jennings Bryan and Carl Schurz there was a third coalition of business men intellectuals and politicians who opposed traditional colonialism and advocated…
Chapter 18-1 Notes
Imperialism- policy of extending control over weaker nations.
In 1800s, Europeans divide up most of Africa, compete for China.
Desire for Military Strength
Admiral Alfred T. Mahan urges U.S. to build up navy to compete.
U.S. builds modern battleships, becomes third largest naval power.
Thirst for New Markets
U.S. needs raw materials, new markets for goods.
Foreign trade: solution to overproduction, unemployment, depression
Growth of America as an Empire
__________________- Stronger countries extend political, economic, or political control over weaker nations
American Imperialism based on 3 factors
Growth of _______________strength
Growth of new ______________ markets
Spread cultural __________________
Alfred T. Mahan- urged America to build strong navy
1883-1890- nine steel hulled fleet ships
Modern battleships such as Maine and Oregon
Imperialism: policy by which one country takes control of the economic and political control of another country or region
Expansionist: The belief that Americans shared the duty to extend their cultures to others.
Isolation: policy having little to do with foreign nations
Sphere of Influence: area in china where a foreign nation had special trading privileges and made laws for its own citizens.
Isthmus: Narrow strip of land
Dollar Diplomacy: President Taft’s policy of encouraging Americans to invent…
ideologies—by the European powers, the United States of
America and the Empire of Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
Imperialism of Free Trade
an article by John Gallagher and Ronald Robinson that was published in the Economic History Review in
1. Explain how issues concerning late 19th
century imperialism reflected prominent themes we have already discussed…
proclaimed by many Americans at the time that the United States’ Manifest
Destiny was to expand its borders across the continent, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. The presidents in
office from 1830 to 1850 were encouraged by Manifest Destiny and hoped to accomplish the goal. Decisions in the
time periods involving Native Indians, Canada, Oregon, Texas, and Mexico display that the concept of Manifest
Destiny was a very aggressive form of imperialism, and highly contributed to sectional problems…
Secretary of war. He was in agreement with the radical republicans on the reconstruction. President Johnson called him a traitor and no longer wanted him in his cabinet.
* Benjamin Wade- Ohio republican, was the President pro tempore of the United States senate in 1868. With the removal of President Johnson he was next to become president.
* Ulysses S. Grant-Leader of men and a war hero. He won the election of 1868 with the help of freedmen. Radical reconstruction was carried out during his…
Pure Food and Drug Act-Sinclair
Interstate Commerce Act
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Settlement Houses-Jane Addams
National Park Service-John Muir
Susan B. Anthony
From isolationism to imperialism/expansionism
Fought in Cuba and Philippines
U.S. gained Philippines, Puerto Rice, Guam
U.S. Annexes Hawaii
World War I
Tanks, machine guns, airplanes, poison…