Collectivist cultures: regard people as deeply connected to one another and to their families, groups, and communities. Collectivist cultures value intergroup order and harmony, group welfare, and interdependence
Resistance: A common response to diversity is resistance, which occurs when we reject the beliefs of particular cultures or social communities. Resistance denies the value and validity of particular cultural styles.
Participation: A final response to diversity is participation, in which we incorporate some practices and values of other groups into our own lives. More than other responses, participation encourages us to develop skills for participating in a multicultural world in which all of us can take part in some of each other’s customs.
Reflected appraisal: The process of seeing ourselves through the eyes of others is called reflected appraisal, or the looking-glass self.
The Generalized other: The second perspective that influences how we see ourselves is that of the generalized other. The generalized other is the collection of the rules, roles, and attitudes endorsed by the overall society and social communities to which we belong. In other words, the generalized other is made up of the views of society and social communities to which we belong.
A secure attachment style: develops when a child’s primary caregiver responds in a consistently attentive and loving way to a child. In response, the child develops a positive sense of self-worth ( I am lovable) and a positive view of others( people are loving and can be trusted)People with secure attachment styles tend to be outgoing, affectionate, and able to handle the challenges and disappointments of close relationships without losing self-esteem. A majority of middle-class children in the United States are securely attached.
Reflected Appraisals: reflected appraisals of peers join with those we saw in the eyes of family members and shape our self-images. Peers’ appraisals of us have impact throughout our lives. We’re affected by our co-workers’ judgments of our professional competence, our neighbors’ views of our home and family, and the appraisals of friends.
Social comparisons: A third way in which communication with peers affects self-concept is through social comparison, our rating of ourselves relative to others with respect to our talents, abilities, qualities, and so forth. Whereas reflected appraisals are based on how we think others view us, in social comparisons we use others to evaluate ourselves.
Self-sabotage: One of the most crippling kinds of self-talk in which we can engage is self-sabotage. This involves telling ourselves we are not good, we can not do something, there’s no point in trying to change, and so forth. We may be repeating judgments others made of us trying to change.
Commitment: The sparks and the emotional high of being in love or discovering a new friend stem from passion, an intense feeling based on the rewards of involvement with another person. Passion is why we have the sensations of butterflies in the stomach and giddiness. As exciting as passion is, it is not the basis of enduring relationships.
Commitment is the decision to remain with a relationship.
A Turning point: A turning point moves a relationship toward or away from intimacy. In romantic relationship toward or away toward intimacy might include first kiss, first I love you, and meeting parents.
EROS: is a style of loving that is passionate, intense and fast moving. Not confined to sexual passion, eros maybe expressed in spiritual, intellectual, or emotional ways.
Mania : is an unsettling style of loving marked by emotional extremes. Manic lovers often are insecure about their value and their partners’ commitment.
Agape: is a selfless