“The juvenile court system was established in the United States about two hundred years ago, with the first court appearing in Illinois in 1899”(www.criminal.findlaw.com). The Child Saving activist and movement was concerned with intending government control over youthful activities that had been previously left to private or family control” (Siegel & Welsh, 2012 pg.475). The main focus was “to reform U.S. policies regarding youth offenders” (www.lawyershop.com), and to rehabilitate and reform the juvenile offender, and not punish them as the adult system does.
The New York House of Refuge was created in 1825, by the Child saving Movement. This was a facility that would house only children. It did not just house children who had committed crimes, but poor kids, ones who misbehaved, and orphans. “The goal was intended to protect potential youths by taking them off the street and providing a family-life environment” (Siegel & Welsh, 2011 pg375). The child savers expanded their house of refuge, and within years to come they were all over the world
By the early 1900’s, “The Houses of Refuge were being replace by reform schools. These were institutions that would house delinquent youths that would have otherwise been sent to adult prison” (Siegel & Welsh, 2011