Kaufman: Learning and Level Essay

Submitted By littlefox105
Words: 491
Pages: 2

Model #2: Kaufman’s 5 Levels
Level 1a: Enabling 1b: Reaction
Level 2: Acquisition
Level 3: Application
Level 4: Organizational Output
Level 5: Societal Outcomes
One alternative: Kirkpatrick Plus

Articulated by Kaufman, Keller, and Watkins (“Kaufman”) (1995), this evaluation framework connects performance to expectations. Kaufman proposes 5 levels of evaluation

Level 1: Resources and processes
Level 1 is actually divided into two levels, 1a and 1b.

Level 1a focuses the evaluation lens on inputs, e.g., such as the availability and quality of materials needed to support a learning effort.
Level 1b considers processes. What’s their quality? Are they efficient? Are learners satisfied with them?
Compared to Kirkpatrick’s Level 1 (Reaction), Kaufman’s Level 1 focuses not only on learner satisfaction, but on the organizational factors that can impact learner satisfaction.

Level 2: Acquisition
This level is focused on individual and small group payoffs—what Kaufman calls “micro” benefits. Are the objectives or desired outcomes of the learning intervention met? It’s pretty analogous to Kirkpatrick’s Level 2 evaluation (Learning), but Kaufman notes that the learning intervention may not necessarily be training.

Level 3: Application
This is still a micro analysis, examining individual and small group impacts. The relevant inquiry here is whether newly acquired knowledge and skills are being applied on the job. Level 3 also is quite similar to Kirkpatrick’s Level 3 (Behavior/Performance).

Level 4: Organizational payoffs
Here, the analysis examines macro benefits. What are the benefits from an organizational standpoint? Level 4 is analogous to Kirkpatrick’s Level 4 (Results).

Level 5: Societal contributions
Kaufman considers this a mega analysis. How is the organization contributing to its clients and society? Is it responsive to client/societal needs?

Issues of health, continued profits, pollution, safety, and well-being are central [in this level]. The basis for mega-level concerns is an ideal vision, which is a measurable…