The concept of flexibility is a major concern for human resource managers. Human resource flexibility refers to the capability to facilitate the organization’s ability to adapt effectively and in a timely manner to changing or diverse demands from its environment. According to Wright and Snell, human resource flexibility is “the extent to which the firm’s human resources possess skills that can give a firm options for pursuing strategic alternatives in the firm’s competitive environment, as well as the extent to which the necessary Human Resource Management practices can be identified, developed, and implemented quickly to maximize the flexibilities inherent in those human resources.” (Wright 772) The need for flexibility arises from the changing business environment, a change in social environment, and government policy environment. Changes in the business environment typically include highly competitive global product markets and changes in advancements in technology, while changes in the social environment can include certain patterns, such as male to female ratio or retirement trends. Strategic planning involves a set of procedures for making decisions about an organization’s long-term goals and strategies. In comparison, Human resource planning is the process of anticipating and providing for the movement of people into, within, and out of the organization. This is important for human resource managers because it lets them create and adapt to a more flexible environment. By analyzing the culture, competition and composition of the workforce, managers can establish quality, service, speed, and innovation goals. They can also reconcile supply and demand by hiring more employees, laying off short-term/temporary worker, and/or downsizing. Successful human resource planning helps to increase organizational capacity—which is the capacity of the organization to continuously act and change in pursuit of sustainable competitive advantage. Flexibility can be achieved in two primary ways. Coordination flexibility is the ability to rapidly reallocate resources to new or changing needs, while resource flexibility results from having resources that can be used in different ways and people who can perform different functions in different ways. According to Atkinson and Meager’s model of the “flexible firm”, there are four types of flexibility that is looked for by companies. Functional flexibility refers to a firm’s ability to adjust and deploy the skills of its employees to match the tasks required by its changing workload. This can be done by multi-skilling, dual skilling, or dismantling of traditional rigidities between occupational. By training employees to handle more than one task, they become more functional; this can improve efficiency as well as reduce costs. The next type of flexibility in Atkinson and Meager’s model is external numerical flexibility. External numerical flexibility refers to a firm’s ability to adjust the level of labor inputs to meet fluctuations in outputs. Human resource managers can adjust the level of labor by increasing/decreasing the use of part timers, temporary, or short-term contract staff. Increasing a mixture of non-standard employment forms will be more efficient and cheaper. The third type of flexibility is internal numerical flexibility. Instead of hiring part time or temporary workers, this flexibility is achieved by adjusting the hours or schedules of employees already employed at the firm. The advantage of this is that it saves the firm money and time. The final type of flexibility is financial flexibility. Financial flexibility refers to achievement of flexibility through the pay and reward structure. Intrinsic and extrinsic rewards are used to motivate and retain a qualified workforce. Pay raises, benefits, and vacation time are all examples of providing financial flexibility for employees. According to the model of flexibly, there are two separate divisions of the…
an obligation to worry about and do something about the challenges of women. We can adopt some strategies for women to improve the status of women and the balance between work and life, such as, create reduced-hour jobs, provide flexibility in the day, provide flexibility in the arc of a career, remove the stigma, equity principles in recruitment, selection and promotion processes.
But for the brain drain, it is not only focus on women, men also take off-ramps, so an organization should take measures…
research pag 4
The process followed in the empirical research consists of five phases pag 5
Conclusions pag 6
References pag 6
The current situation facing all countries of the European Union has set up a new economic and social scenario. In this scenario training plays a strategic role in the preparation of the human asset.
On the other hand, the link between changes in employment, the development of skills and the way to develop these skills, is determined by…
influence on bottom line (productivity, turnover)
* Three competitive challenges
- sustainability (ability to make profit without sacrificing resources of employees, community, environment; deal with economic and social changes, ethical business practice, high-quality products and services) economic changes (recession, downsizing, delaying retirement, increasing total employment, rising health care costs); knowledge workers (contribute to company with knowledge); Empowering (giving responsibility…
‘affecting all key business areas’; that is, the strategic role of operations management involves operations managers contributing to the strategic plan of the business.
Some of the different costs in the operations function include; input costs, labour costs, processing costs, inventory costs and quality management costs.
Cost leadership involves aiming to have the lowest costs or to be the most price-competitive in the market. A key aspect to cost leadership is that although trading with the lowest…
(horizontal segregation). So, some experts suggest that in twenty-first century, women can be regarded as a ‘reserve army of labour’, prepared to get into the market when it is required. This essay will critically examine this idea by inducing several theories on women and work like Marxist views, and evaluate them afterwards.
It is true that women are at an inferior status in the labour market, and there are some facts proving that. According to ONS, in 2011, the pay gap was 10.5% in terms of full-time…
How Much Does Labour Turnover Cost? A Study of Australian Four- and Five-Star Hotels
Purpose: Employee turnover is a significant challenge for Human Resource Management (HRM) strategies and organisational performance. This study presents findings drawn from an extensive survey of labour turnover in the Australian accommodation sector. A particular focus is placed on turnover rates and costs.
Design/methodology/approach: Based on labour turnover literature and an industry panel, an online…
Retains employees, increases motivation, contribute to org productivity & worker growth
RECRUITMENT: finding job applicants for open position
SELECTION: choice of job applicant pool who will meet management goals/objectives, legal requiremnts
SOCIAL/ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING R/S GTC STORB
- technology/internet (expected to be computer literate, companies now hiring online)
- change in work force demographics (abolition of retire @ 65 less room for entry level)
- supply & demand…
* Staff Authority
* Authority to advise, not direct managers in other departments
* Line Authority
* Possessed by managers of operating departments to make decisions about production, performance, and people
* Functional Authority
* Authority that allows staff to make decisions and take actions normally reserved for line managers
* Enormous growth in the number of HR managers
* Sample competencies:
* Business Mastery…
Management – Chapter 1 – Introducing Management
Expected to continuously excel performance on ethics, social responsibility, innovativeness, employee development, profitability and investment value.
Careers are being redefined as “flexibility,” “free agency, and “skill portfolios”
No guarantee of long term employment, jobs are always earned and re-earned.
“Our greatest assets as a corporation are the gifts, talents and abilities of our employee owners…”
social processes related to growing older and being an older person
FOCUS on the Social aspects of aging
Aging: A personal Matter
65 is a social marker of later life, the conventional retirement age and age of entitlement to economic benefits in most Western countries
Stereotypes of old age
“Life is trouble. Only death is not.” – Zobra the Greek
One traditional scale of stressful life events, starting with the 10th
Being fired from work