The concept of flexibility is a major concern for human resource managers. Human resource flexibility refers to the capability to facilitate the organization’s ability to adapt effectively and in a timely manner to changing or diverse demands from its environment. According to Wright and Snell, human resource flexibility is “the extent to which the firm’s human resources possess skills that can give a firm options for pursuing strategic alternatives in the firm’s competitive environment, as well as the extent to which the necessary Human Resource Management practices can be identified, developed, and implemented quickly to maximize the flexibilities inherent in those human resources.” (Wright 772) The need for flexibility arises from the changing business environment, a change in social environment, and government policy environment. Changes in the business environment typically include highly competitive global product markets and changes in advancements in technology, while changes in the social environment can include certain patterns, such as male to female ratio or retirement trends. Strategic planning involves a set of procedures for making decisions about an organization’s long-term goals and strategies. In comparison, Human resource planning is the process of anticipating and providing for the movement of people into, within, and out of the organization. This is important for human resource managers because it lets them create and adapt to a more flexible environment. By analyzing the culture, competition and composition of the workforce, managers can establish quality, service, speed, and innovation goals. They can also reconcile supply and demand by hiring more employees, laying off short-term/temporary worker, and/or downsizing. Successful human resource planning helps to increase organizational capacity—which is the capacity of the organization to continuously act and change in pursuit of sustainable competitive advantage. Flexibility can be achieved in two primary ways. Coordination flexibility is the ability to rapidly reallocate resources to new or changing needs, while resource flexibility results from having resources that can be used in different ways and people who can perform different functions in different ways. According to Atkinson and Meager’s model of the “flexible firm”, there are four types of flexibility that is looked for by companies. Functional flexibility refers to a firm’s ability to adjust and deploy the skills of its employees to match the tasks required by its changing workload. This can be done by multi-skilling, dual skilling, or dismantling of traditional rigidities between occupational. By training employees to handle more than one task, they become more functional; this can improve efficiency as well as reduce costs. The next type of flexibility in Atkinson and Meager’s model is external numerical flexibility. External numerical flexibility refers to a firm’s ability to adjust the level of labor inputs to meet fluctuations in outputs. Human resource managers can adjust the level of labor by increasing/decreasing the use of part timers, temporary, or short-term contract staff. Increasing a mixture of non-standard employment forms will be more efficient and cheaper. The third type of flexibility is internal numerical flexibility. Instead of hiring part time or temporary workers, this flexibility is achieved by adjusting the hours or schedules of employees already employed at the firm. The advantage of this is that it saves the firm money and time. The final type of flexibility is financial flexibility. Financial flexibility refers to achievement of flexibility through the pay and reward structure. Intrinsic and extrinsic rewards are used to motivate and retain a qualified workforce. Pay raises, benefits, and vacation time are all examples of providing financial flexibility for employees. According to the model of flexibly, there are two separate divisions of the
job-related knowledge, skills etc) development programs (ability to meet changes in job requirements)
performance management systems (checking that employees activities match goals)
reward systems (low or high pay, tying pay to performance etc)
labour relations programs (good relations can bring competitive advantage)
* Role behaviour behaviours required of an individual in his or her role
* Concentration strategy increase market share, decrease costs, Focus on what a company is best…
an obligation to worry about and do something about the challenges of women. We can adopt some strategies for women to improve the status of women and the balance between work and life, such as, create reduced-hour jobs, provide flexibility in the day, provide flexibility in the arc of a career, remove the stigma, equity principles in recruitment, selection and promotion processes.
But for the brain drain, it is not only focus on women, men also take off-ramps, so an organization should take measures…
research pag 4
The process followed in the empirical research consists of five phases pag 5
Conclusions pag 6
References pag 6
The current situation facing all countries of the European Union has set up a new economic and social scenario. In this scenario training plays a strategic role in the preparation of the human asset.
On the other hand, the link between changes in employment, the development of skills and the way to develop these skills, is determined by…
‘affecting all key business areas’; that is, the strategic role of operations management involves operations managers contributing to the strategic plan of the business.
Some of the different costs in the operations function include; input costs, labour costs, processing costs, inventory costs and quality management costs.
Cost leadership involves aiming to have the lowest costs or to be the most price-competitive in the market. A key aspect to cost leadership is that although trading with the lowest…
same workforce with men. Moreover, it is women who accept most part-time works and fill in those special areas like cashing (horizontal segregation). So, some experts suggest that in twenty-first century, women can be regarded as a ‘reserve army of labour’, prepared to get into the market when it is required. This essay will critically examine this idea by inducing several theories on women and work like Marxist views, and evaluate them afterwards.
It is true that women are at an inferior status…
How Much Does Labour Turnover Cost? A Study of Australian Four- and Five-Star Hotels
Purpose: Employee turnover is a significant challenge for Human Resource Management (HRM) strategies and organisational performance. This study presents findings drawn from an extensive survey of labour turnover in the Australian accommodation sector. A particular focus is placed on turnover rates and costs.
Design/methodology/approach: Based on labour turnover literature and an industry panel, an online…
social processes related to growing older and being an older person
FOCUS on the Social aspects of aging
Aging: A personal Matter
65 is a social marker of later life, the conventional retirement age and age of entitlement to economic benefits in most Western countries
Stereotypes of old age
“Life is trouble. Only death is not.” – Zobra the Greek
One traditional scale of stressful life events, starting with the 10th
Being fired from work
Retains employees, increases motivation, contribute to org productivity & worker growth
RECRUITMENT: finding job applicants for open position
SELECTION: choice of job applicant pool who will meet management goals/objectives, legal requiremnts
SOCIAL/ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING R/S GTC STORB
- technology/internet (expected to be computer literate, companies now hiring online)
- change in work force demographics (abolition of retire @ 65 less room for entry level)
- supply & demand…
production process, detecting where inefficiencies are and
-Waste adds cost, if waste can be minimised then production processes are more efficient
-Was ca be, under use of labour, over production, errors and defects requiring
remediation or creating loss product
Reﬂect fair value for any labour used in processes
-That businesses operate fairly and compensate and treat employees appropriately. The
growth of fair trade movement is a direct result of consumer advocating for businesses…
1. List out and explain the factors that should be taken in to account in deciding the location of a steel factory?
An entrepreneur conducts the detailed analysis comprising of technical, financial, economic and market study before laying down a comprehensive business plan. For implementation of this plan, he has to take various crucial decisions namely location of business, layout (the arrangement of physical facilities), designing the product, production planning and control and maintaining…