are transitory (temporary)
◦Generally caused by the situation
◦Emotion: how you feel RIGHT NOW
are patterns of behavior
◦Generally caused by something within the individual
◦Emotion: how you usually feel
are state versions of many individual differences
◦E.g. state versus trait self-esteem
How easily an emotion can be elicited
& life satisfaction
ways to define happiness:
(1) Judgment that life is satisfying
(2) More positive than negative emotions
Strongly Moderately Slightly
1. In most ways my life is close to my ideal.
2. If I could live my life over, I would change almost nothing.
3. I am satisfied with my life.
4. So far I have gotten the important things I want in life.
5. The conditions of my life are excellent.
The higher the score, the more satisfied you are
of happiness correlate w/ social desirability scores
◦Positive illusions important to happiness ◦Inflated view of self as good, able, desirable What
causes people to say they are happy? Intensity
of happy emotions?
Frequency of happy emotions?
scores correlate with positive life outcomes
◦Higher quality marriages
◦Less abusive & hostile
Attribute success internally
Start a conversation with a new person
Like a stranger
Express interest in leisure activities
(vacations, sporting events, etc.)
Perceive others as close (self-other overlap)
Increases pain threshold
Lowers blood pressure
Participants induced to feel negative moods… ◦Differentiate between strong and weak arguments ◦Value quality of argument over the source ◦Less likely to rely on stereotypes
People in bad moods less likely to rely on heuristics Experiment:
measure personality and then do mood induction
◦Extraversion: Predicts responses to positive stimuli ◦Neuroticism: Predict response to negative stimuli Easy
to put extraverts in a good mood and neurotic people in a bad mood
The following questions refer to emotional reactions to typical life-events. Please indicate how YOU react to these events using the scale provided. Please base your answers on how YOU react, not on how you think others react or how you think a person should react.
1. Sad movies deeply touch me.
2. When I’m happy, it’s a feeling of being untroubled and content, rather than being zestful and aroused.
3. When I talk in front of a group for the first time, my voice gets shaky and my heart races.
4. When something good happens, I’m usually much more jubilant than others.
5. My friends might say I’m emotional.
6. The memories I like most are those of times when I felt content and peaceful, rather than zestful and enthusiastic.
7. The sight of someone who is hurt badly affects me strongly.
8. When I’m feeling well, it’s easy for me to go from feeling in a tood mood to being really joyful.