MIDTERM VOCABULARY Essay example

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MIDTERM VOCABULARY

1. Abnormal – something not normal
2. Acidic and Basic pH Scale
Scientists use something called a pH scale to measure how acidic or basic a liquid is. pH is a number from 0 to 14. From 0 to 7 are acids, with 0 being the strongest. From 7 to 14 are bases with 14 being the strongest base. If a liquid has a pH of 7, it's neutral. This would be something like distilled water.

3. Adaptations also called an adaptive trait, in biology is a trait with a current functional role in the life history of an organism that is maintained andevolved by means of natural selection. Adaptation refers to both the current state of being adapted and to the dynamic evolutionary process that leads to the adaptation. Adaptations contribute to the fitness and survival of individuals.
4. Adaptive - Relating to or exhibiting adaptation.
5. Adaptive value - The adaptive value represents the combined influence of all characters which affect the fitness of an individual or population.
6. Aids means helps.
7. AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome:
Acquired means you can get infected with it;
Immune Deficiency means a weakness in the body’s system that fights diseases.
Syndrome means a group of health problems that make up a disease.
AIDS is caused by a virus called HIV, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. If you get infected with HIV, your body will try to fight the infection. It will make “antibodies,” special molecules to fight HIV.
8. Aqueous - containing water or similar to water
9. Bark of a tree
10. Black soot – fine black particles mainly composed of carbon found in coal.
11. Cancer - the disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body.
12. Carbon dioxide – CO2
O=C=O
13. Cardiac (heart)
14. Catalysts (enzyme)
15. Catalyze (speed up/slow down)
16. Chloride is a chloride ion with a negative charge. Cl-
17. Compound light microscope collects light using multiple lenses from the sample then uses a separate set of lenses to focus the light into the eye.
18. Cultured – organisms are cultured.
19. Cytosine - (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA)
20. Deer
21. Delta positive – slight positive charge that is possessed by the hydrogen atoms in water
22. Diabetes - a metabolic disease in which the body’s inability to produce any or enough insulin causes elevated levels of glucose in the blood.
23. Discoloration – the act of discoloring
24. Earthworm is a worm found living in the soil
25. Electrical conductivity - measure of a material's ability to accommodate the transport of an electric charge.
26. Excretory (excretion)
27. Extracellular means outside the cell
28. Fetus - is a developing mammal or after the embryonic stage and before birth
29. Flagella (euglena)
30. Freshwater
The diagram below represents a freshwater protist. Which letter indicates a structure that prevents the accumulation of excess water in the protist?

1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
Correct Answer Number: 2
Explanation: This is the contractile vacuole which pumps excess water out of the protist. Since there is more pure water outside of the protist, water tends to move in by osmosis. Therefore, the protist must spend energy getting rid of the excess water.
31. Functionality (job or function)
32. Gills – Fish use gills to absorb oxygen, just like humans use nose to inhale oxygen, or earthworms through skin and amebas through cell membranes. This shows all living things rely on similar processes but accomplish them in different ways.
33. Grasshopper - Of the following, which instrument is most commonly used to observe the external features of a grasshopper's abdomen?
1. ultracentrifuge
2. microdissection instrument
3. dissecting microscope
4. electron microscope
Correct Answer Number: 3
Explanation: The dissecting microscope allows you to view 3D images up to 50x magnification. It is…