Modern History Chapter Summary Essay

Submitted By Hussain-Aljanabi
Words: 5522
Pages: 23

SECTION ONE- THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC 1919-1929
WEIMAR GERMANY: THE EARLY YEARS 1918-1919
1.1 THE DEFEAT OF GERMANY IN WORLD WAR 1
End of the war- Russian defeat, US entry
Ludendorff and Hindenburg- Great rulers of Germany- military dictators
Last offensive- 1918 spring offensive
Early success but eventual failure-huge losses
‘Black day’ in German history
Ludendorff and Hindenburg- 29 September to tell Kaiser that war is lost
Change in government- US wanted democracy and military wanted distance
New civilian government- negotiate for peace- blamed for defeat
Prince Mas Von Baden- new government with support of the four main political parties began negotiating for peace
News of negotiations came as a shock to Germans- sense of betrayal
‘ Stab in the back’ legend- German army betrayed by new government- ‘ November Criminals’
November 1918 Kiel Mutiny
German navy- decision to launch major attack on British fleet
Sailors refuse- spread to nearby port of kiel where workers join in
Workers and soldiers ‘Councils are created throughout the north of Germany- modelled on soviets revolution
Bavaria goes one step further- declares independent republic on 8 November
6 November- US President Wilson informs German government they will negotiate for peace
8 November- German armistice committee leave Berlin to sign armistice agreement
9 November- Von Baden announces Kaiser’s abdication- Ludendorff tells the Kaiser. Hindenburg cries
Von Baden steps down as chancellor and hands government to Ebert, leader of SPD
10 November- Kaiser leaves Germany for exile in Holland
The Social Democratic Party (SPD)
• The spd was the largest political party with over a million members by 1914. They sought power by working within the political structure to change the state.
The independent Socialist Party (USPD)
•The USPD believed in democracy however they believed that radical change was needed in the social structure of Germany in order for democracy to function. Formed in 1917 from the SPD
Friedrich Ebert
•The new chancellor, leader of the SPD.
•Came into power unexpectedly
•Priority was to establish order
The Ebert Groener Pact
•General Groener feared the extreme left and the disintegration of the army
•Groener proposed put itself at the governments disposal
•The right wing army was supporting a left wing government to protect the stability of the republic
•This allowed the military to retain its influence and become a key political force in the history of the republic
The Stinnes Legien Agreement – Nov 1918
•Agreement between trade unions and industrialists
•Important example of industrial cooperation
•Prevented strife between workers and employers

The Sparticist Uprising, January 1919
•They followed the ideologies of Karl Marx
•They wanted a revolution in Germany like Russia
•In 1918 a number of key buildings were seized and a revolutionary committee declared the Ebert government deposed
Gustav Noske and the Freilkorps
•Freilkorps were volunteer ex-soldiers
•The Ebert government used the freilkorps to repel the Sparticist
Unrest in Bavaria
•Unrest continued in cities such as Breman, Dusseldorf and Wilhelmshaven
•USPD’s Eisner was assassinated
The Suppression of Counter revolution
•The government ordered an end to counter revolution
•From April to May the revolts were crushed with over 500 killed
In the face of revolutionary threat from the far left, the government needed the support of the army and the Freikorps to survive
• Tensions between the far left and the Ebert government grew after the revolutionary attempts.

1.3 The Creation of the Democratic Weimar Republic
1919- Germany becomes a democracy
•Germany becomes a democracy in 1919
•However has strong tradition of authoritarian rule
1919 Elections
•Despite unrest, elections for a new national assembly were held on 19 January 1919. All Germans over 20 could vote
•The elections showed support for the new concepts of democracy and a republic

The National Assembly at…