Early ideas--- Taylor & Mayo
Taylor’s scientific management theory can be seen as fundamental to HR management. Scientific management is a systematic method of determining the best way to do a job and specifying the skills needed to perform it, hence to achieve efficiency, standardization, discipline.
There are five principles of Taylor’s scientific management---
1. It has a clear division of tasks and responsibilities between management and workers;
2. Use of scientific methods to determine the best way of doing a job;
3. Scientific selection of the person to do the newly designed job;
4. The training of the selected worker to perform the job in the way specified;
5. Enthusiastic co-operation with workers to ensure that work has done in accordance with scientific principles and this was secured by economic incentives.
One of Chaplin’s comedy films has shown typical disadvantages of this scientific management, although it worked in manufacturing in the past (Ford, car manufacturing company), this type of management cannot suit into modern organizations especially for those organizations require knowledgeable workers. Tyalor’s scientific management emphasis quantity not quality of work, treats employees as inhuman resource.
Content Theories (Maslow)
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs---
Based on observational studies of primates and interviews with 140 humans (mostly women). Those who really have more self-esteem are more dominant (feel liked, trust and loved) are psychologically free and more natural (more masculine), low self-esteem individuals are over socialized and inhibited (more feminine) and may seek dominance to overcompensate, but not really feel it.
A person can only self-actualize when that person and others recognizes their factual superiority (physically, emotionally and so on), so they can in turn recognize and encourage the true universal values of others (i.e. their humanity), even those who are inferior, and help them.
Criticisms of Maslow’s theory: the theory is lack of research support, plus his theory is on the suggestion of a fixed order; a satisfied need is no longer a motivator, the pyramid needs order is fixed. However, in reality, work is not the only way to satisfy needs, individuals have different desires of needs and differ in values. Moreover, some jobs don’t allow people to self-actualize, for example, some routine jobs like accountants do not allow accountants to have creativity, as creativity accounting is illegal.
Alderfer’s ERG model--- modification of needs hierarchy into three core needs of Existence, Relatedness and Growth.
- Existence - sustaining human existence and survival (Physiological and safety needs)
– Relatedness - relationship to the social environment (safety, social and esteem needs)
-Growth - the development of potential (self esteem and self actualisation)
This model implies that an individual can move up and down in the hierarchy, more flexible than Maslow’s approach. Need theory dominated work motivation for many years, there are however fatal flaws in the approach: the needs don’t group together so tidily, you cant generalize about individuals needs so prescriptively, and different people have different needs and cope with life in different ways. It is widely understood, but over-quoted the idea of the self-actualising person the basic importance of security.
Both Maslow and Alderfer models are similar, hygiene factors and motivators have limitations of incentives, once the basic been achieved, they would be not motivators anymore.
McGregor’s theory x and y---
Theory x assumes that people dislike work; managers must closely supervise and control through reward and punishment. It also assumes people dislike change and so resists learning; employees should be given low trust. Theory y assumes workers want to a good job and the job itself will determine if the worker likes the work, managers should give more trust on employees,