This essay is to discuss how motivation is referred to the question “why we do what we do” (Ozgurzan, 2010). “Motivation is the key factor of doing something an individual will be interested in and happy about without being discouraged” (Dictionary, 2009-2012). Moreover, in certain working places pay is considered to be the main motivator for most employees; a business should satisfy each employee with every need required. Therefore, if needs are not, then the motivation of the employee or employee’s will certainly bring down production towards the working sector the person is in. “It is, known that for businesses to produce well, it must have entertaining, and working employee’s that work in a truly tremendous and effective way that will then support the organizations goals that are for” (Boddy, 2002). For instance, in a short run, lack of motivation will certainly lead to less effort put in from the employees and lack of commitment while in the long term; lack of motivation will lead to a fall in productivity of the business and a fall in its profits. However, it is said that employees that are will of course increase the productivity of the business leading to higher profits and efficiency for the business. Therefore, this essay will then define the different types of motivation theories that can be classified into two different categories, which are Content and Process theories. Moreover, content theories are classified as what motivates people, and it is to do with individual needs and goals. Theories, such as Maslow, Herzberg, etc studied motivation from a content type of scheme. On the other hand, theories that studied with a process type of scheme were motivation occurs. Equity theory, Expectancy theory, Reinforcement theory, etc studied motivation from a process type of scheme. This essay will therefore, begin with stating the principles of management and then define some of motivation theories, compare them and their views regarding to motivation techniques that may be used in appropriate times of austerity (recession).
(Boddy, 2010) states that, Taylor’s approach mainly concentrated on the relationship between the employee and the usage of how the machine-based production systems work in a wide way. Therefore, Taylor’s principle aim due to management was that, security must be the most successful situation fulfilled for the employer, together with the security needs for every employee in the working sector. Moreover, workers could only gain this by how much effort they have put in their duty that has to each of them and understand it. The manager is in full responsibility of all processes that have been properly processed by the employee’s. However, they are certain motivational principles such as, employee empowerment, ways to punish those that are not working sufficiently, positive reinforcement, rewards and recognition, etc. Therefore, the manager is to use a Paternalistic management style in order to give or pay more attention to the basic needs that their employee’s have requested for, in order for them to be effective due to their respective duties. With this sort of management style, Managers act like a fatherly figure making their workers happy (RILEY, 2012). Firstly, managers are to listen and view a random selection of employee’s before decisions are actually. However, the actual decisions are by the manager relating to the interests of the workers because, the managers still feel that their workers still need direction, and in a way this is similar to an Autocratic management style. Moreover, the social needs of Maslow (which I will explain about later in the essay) are with a Paternalistic sort of management style. Meaningful methods/rules must me created in a work place, in order to help promote motivation and excellent communication amongst the managers and employee’s; to achieve a successful production leading to a positive income of profit for the goods and services