Notes On Biology

Submitted By colt9761
Words: 2755
Pages: 12

Chapter 1

Process of change that has transofmred life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today. biology
Scientific study of life. emergent properties
Due to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases. systems biology
An approach that attempts to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems based on the study of the interactions among the system's parts. levels of biological organization
1. Biosphere
2. Ecosystems
3. Communities
4. Populations
5. Organisms
6. Organs and Organ Systems
7. Tissues
8. Cells
9. Organelles
10. Molecules eukaryotic cell
Subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-enclosed organelles. prokaryotic cell
DNA not separated from the rest of the cell by enclosure in a membrane-bounded nucleus. DNA
All of a cell's genetic material. genes
Units of inheritance that transmit info from parents to offspring. gene expression
Process by which the information in a gene directs the production of a cellular product. genome The entire "library" of genetic instructions that an organism inherits. genomics
The study of whole sets of genes of a species as well as comparing genomes between species. negative feedback
Accumulation of an end product of a process slows that process. (Over-production of ATP) positive feedback
End product speeds up its own production. (Platelets in blood-clotting) classifying life
- Domain
.- Kingdom
- Phylum
- Class
- Order
- Family
- Genus
- Species three domains of life
1. Bacteria
2. Archaea
3. Eukarya natural selection Natural environment "selects" for the propagation of certain traits among naturally occurring variant traits in the population. data
Recorded observations.
Qualitative - recorded descriptions
Quantitative - measurements inductive reasoning The collection and analysis of observations to lead to important conclusions. hypothesis
Tentative answer to a well-framed question. deductive reasoning
After hypothesis is formed; Involves logic that flows in the oppotsite direction, from general to specific. controlled experiment
One that is designed to compare an experimental group with a control group. theory 1. Broader than a hypothesis.
2. General enough to spin off new hypotheses.
3. Supported by a much greater body of evidence.

Chapter 2 matter anything that has mass and takes up space element any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions. (92 elements are recognized, 25 are essentil for life) compound consisting of two or more substances or ingredients or elements or parts combined in a fixed ratio. trace elements Elements required by an organism in only minute quantities atom the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element neutrons the particles of the nucleus that have no charge protons positively charged particles electrons negatively charged subatomic particles atomic nucleus
An atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons. atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, written as a subscript to the left of the symbol. mass number the sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atomic nucleus atomic mass total mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom, measured in atomic mass units isotopes atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons radioactive isotope isotope in which the nucleus decays (breaks down) over time, giving off radiation in the form of matter and energy Energy the capacity of a physical system to do work potential energy energy stored due to an object's position or arrangement electron shell an energy level of electrons at a