Up until recently, interracial marriage was not a widely discussed or contested subject because of its link to the history of racism and sexism. Even today, for example, many families who follow their ancestor’s footsteps on the topic of tradition forbid their children to be married off into a random family. Similarly, in the seventeenth century colonial America, there were many strict laws that were enforced to punish blacks, women, slaves, servants, and other classes of people who engaged in fornication and adultery. However, the punishments for the crime were dependent on the race, sex, and age of the convicts. It may seem a certain gender or a race was discriminated when related to the severity of the punishment, but, over time, and after many revisions of the laws, the austerity of certain disciplines for those discriminated, either lightened or loosened. “Negroes” were introduced in Virginia in the early seventeenth century not as slaves, a common misconception, but as indentured servants. Unlike slaves, indentured servants had laws to protect them as well as certain rights. They were initially treated and given similar opportunities, freedom, and privileges like the whites until slave laws were imposed. Due to the increase in demand for labor, the prices for indentured servants naturally rose as well. Because newly freed servants demanded land, landowners decided to invest solely in African slaves due to their profitability and accessibility. Thus, marked the turn from common indentured servants to black slavery. “…doubts have arisen whether children got by any Englishman upon a negro woman should be slave or free…all children borne in this country shalbe held bond or free only according to the condition of the mother,” [Negro womens children to serve according to the condition of the mother, 1662 (74)]. Conjured up in 1662, this statute was intended to enslave potential children. The words “condition of the mother” is a significant clue that reveals the intentions of the law and policy makers. That statement is unfavorable to females because the destiny of the child was determined by the social class of the female. Whereas the Englishman, mentioned in the law, had no say in the child’s future. This was completely opposite to the English tradition where the child would usually inherit his or her status directly from his or her father. This is significant because seeing Englishmen as true traditionalist, the necessity for them to entirely shift their paradigm is shocking. However, this shift is interesting because it was a simple solution to an unknown father of a child. Because many women simply would not admit who the father was, basing the future of the child from the mother would be the most convenient, yet hassle-free option. Another point to note is that if the women of the punishment were enslaved African women, the offspring would be considered her master’s property. “Black women gave birth to white wealth.” As a result, laws were created to refrain slave owners from constantly raping their black slaves to attain “free labor.” However, unsurprisingly, if the women were English servants, regardless of the race and status of the men, she would only have to repay by adding two years of service (Child support is dependent on the father’s race and class). The racism within that community during the middle to late seventeenth century was clearly very strong. “And that if any Christian shall commit ffornication with a negro man or woman, hee or shee soe offending shall pay double the ffines imposed by the former act. [Negro womens children to serve according to the condition of the mother  (74)].” The term “Christian” never specified any race in the law, but throughout history, historians came to the conclusion that “Christians” were referred to as “white” people. Why was it not possible for Africans to be Christians as well? Was it because the religion was seen as a sacred and…
The consultant also provides guidance on the content and recommended actions contained in the inspection report, carrying out risk assessments and any issues that may arise.
Risk assessment training is provided using the traditional paper based system approach or by the use of our unique on-line service “Citassess ®”. This enables the client to compile the required risk assessments using symbols and pictograms to denote the hazards and necessary control measures.
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September 08, 2013
In my ninth grade year I thought that everything would be a breeze. I was completely lost the first three weeks of school. When I saw how much freedom I had being in high school, I was too excited. It was so much to be in and be a part of. I immediately wanted to join things, but I knew that I had to stay focus. High school is so easy to get off track, that if you don’t pay attention to what you are doing, and stays organize, you will fall in a whole.…
HIST 1302 – 502
The Black Power movement was a collective social and political expression of pride, strength, and self-determination during the late 1960s and 1970s in the United States. It was a logical progress of the African Americans civil rights movement. However, the era of Black Power movement overlapped with an expansion of African Americans’ political power development and therefore, it was interpreted differently within and outside the black communities.…
People have many reasons as to why they believe in “God” or a higher being or no being at all. Whether you side with those that believe that god does exist or with those who believe that we evolved through the process of evolution, I will be siding with neither. Instead, I will explain the main points from both the advocate of the teleological argument and the Theory of Evolution.
The Teleological Theory states that the world that we live in possesses a highly ordered…
CAS WR 100 K6
Women in Leach’s New Capitalist Culture: Equality in the Department Stores
Historian William Leach, in The Land of Desire, argues that a new culture developed in the United States after the Civil War into the early twentieth century, shaped by capitalism. A part of this new culture, Leach claims, is the “democratization of desire” (Leach, 3). An idea that now everybody could desire whatever they wanted, there was no social class limit on what you…
other hand, lends to the idea of frothing from being poisoned. This could suggest that the heal-all was poisoned intentionally by a design of darkness, resulting in its role in the setting. Lastly, the moth is described as “dead wings carried like a paper kite.” This insinuates the moth was capable of flight and freedom with the beauty and grace of kite, but now it must be carried, no longer able to fly, and these things taken away from it. These ideas suggest that both the moth and heal-all were victims…
History Paper 1
Historical Figure: “Nikola Tesla”
Throughout history, there have been many great scientists and inventors that have had a big influence in the United States, as well as the entire world. One of these scientists was Nikola Tesla. Many times he is referred to as the genius who changed the way in which we use energy. Nikola Tesla was born to Serbian parents on 28 June of 1856 in the village of Smiljan, in the Austrian Empire. His father was Milutin Tesla, who was…
September 29, 2014
Diversity in Society
In “The Pedagogy of the Oppressed” by Paulo Freire, Freire focuses on the causes of oppression, why it is difficult to stop it, and what one can do to help prevent it. Oppression takes away the humanity from those being oppressed and also those who oppress –it is the biggest problem of humanity. It is humanity’s biggest problem because many do not treat others as their own kind – instead they treat them like objects that do not have feelings…
诗言志(Shi Yan Zhi) means “Poetry articulates aims.” Du Fu articulates clear messages and aims in “The View in Spring.” “The View in Spring” is one of his works which shows this Confucian idea of loyalty and love of the people. Especially, in “The View in Spring”, he is articulating patriotism as a theme. At the same time, his style is effectively conveying the message about yearning for his family and lamenting of himself. He is trying to show sad reality…