Rationalism is the emphasis on reasoning as a source of knowledge. Empiricism is the emphasis on observational evidence via sensory experience over other evidence as the source of knowledge. Rationalism claims that every possible object of knowledge can be deduced from coherent premises without observation. Empiricism claims that at least some knowledge is only a matter of observation.Logic is the study of the principles of correct reasoning. Arguments use either deductive reasoning or inductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning is when, given certain statements (called premises), other statements (called conclusions) are unavoidably implied. Rules of inferences from premises include the most popular method, modus ponens, where given “A” and “If A then B”, then “B” must be concluded. A common convention for a deductive argument is the syllogism. An argument is termed valid if its conclusion does follow from its premises, whether the premises are true or not, while an argument is sound if its conclusion follows from premises that are true. Propositional logic uses premises that are propositions, which are declarations that are either true or false, while predicate logic uses more complex premises called formulae that contain variables. These can be assigned values or can be quantified as to when they apply with the universal quantifier (always apply) or the existential quantifier (applies at least once). Inductive reasoning makes conclusions or generalizations based on probabilistic reasoning. For example, if “90% of humans are right-handed” and “Joe is human” then “Joe is probably right-handed”. Fields in logic include mathematical logic (formal symbolic logic) and philosophical logicOne debate that has commanded the attention of ethicists in the modern era has been between consequentialism (actions are to be morally evaluated solely by their consequences) and deontology (actions are to be morally evaluated solely by consideration of agents' duties, the rights of those whom the action concerns, or both). Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill are famous for propagating utilitarianism, which is the idea that the fundamental moral rule is to strive toward the "greatest happiness for the greatest number". However, in promoting this idea they also necessarily promoted the broader doctrine of consequentialism. Adopting a position opposed to consequentialism, Immanuel Kant argued that moral principles were simply products of reason. Kant believed that the incorporation of consequences into moral deliberation was a deep mistake, since it denies the necessity of practical
A study that attempts to discover the fundamental principles of the sciences, the arts, and the world that the sciences and arts deal with; the word philosophy is from the Greek for “love of wisdom.” Philosophy has many branches that explore principles of specific areas, such as knowledge ( epistemology), reasoning ( logic), being in general ( metaphysics), beauty ( aesthetics), and human conduct ( ethics).
Different approaches to philosophy are also called…
something? Are we justified in believing that things are as we perceive them? What makes a statement true?
•Ethics-What makes an action right, or a person good? Is morality objective or subjective? Is it ever acceptable to lie? Is euthanasia moral?
•Logic-What does it mean for some statements to follow from others? What structure makes an argument valid?
-So say someone has amnesia
What he likes and doesn’t like
What he wants to do with his life
What kid of person he wants to be
Thoughts and Theories
Knowledge and WisdomLogic & Critical Thinking
Philo/sophy - Love and Wisdom.
Wisdom = Intellectual and Moral Excellence.
Love = Agapy.
Subfields Of Philosophy
Chapter 1 Review.
Where does The universe come from? Cosmological question.
Hesiod- Theo/gony" 750-700b.c
Gia- Mother earth.
Eros- Sexual Love/Lust
Ouranos- Sky God
Kronos- Son of Gia…
Ethics - Exam 1
Immanuel Kant: Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals
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too subjective a basis on which to ground philosophy and science. Hobbes contested the scientific systems of the natural philosophers Francis Bacon and Robert Boyle. These major figures in the Scientific Revolution in England base their natural philosophy on a process of inductive reasoning, making inferences and conclusions based on the observation of nature and the manipulation of nature through experimentation. For Hobbes, the chief aim of philosophy is to create a totalizing system of truth that…
This reading, according to Steinberger, is unpersuasive in a couple of ways. Firstly, Steinberger realizes that the moral law is not guided by the mere logical consistence. Steinberger reviews Harrison’s argument that the maxim of breaking promises , if universalized, undermine the systematic harmony of purposes. Since such result is based on experience of breaking promises. Kemp argues that Kant indicates self-contradiction in the CI is essentially logical. Steinberger takes Harrison’s point is…
participation of the eternal law in the rational creature’, to today’s natural lawyers such as John Finnis who view law from the perspective of its ultimate moral function which is taken to be the ability of law to co-ordinate human activity for the common good. Natural law is often contrasted with the ‘positive law’, namely, the legal rules promulgated in formal fashion by the state and enforced through defined sanctions. A problem for students is to decide which ‘type’ of natural law is being referred…
LP1.1 Assignment: Ethical Theories
"Ethics" is the name of a branch of philosophy, which is the attempt to answer the most fundamental questions of human life by means of reason alone, rather than faith or tradition. Ethics is the continuing effort on the part of the human race to rationally analyze and evaluate the principles and ideals that might help us to understand which ways of life are most admirable and worth living, and which actions are right or wrong.
At the beginning of medieval thought…
utilitarianism. The contemporary philosopher Paul Taylor traces the foundations of British utilitarianism back even further, to David Hume (1711-1776), the famous British empiricist, who claims in his Treatise that people invent rules for conduct because having such rules is most useful for society as a whole.
However, the differences among the early utilitarians are slight, so that most of what is said in these notes regarding Mill is equally applicable to Hume and Bentham.
One important difference…
Socrates 469 BC–399 BC, was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher. Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, he is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon, and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes. Many would claim that Plato's dialogues are the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity.
Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has…