Rationalism is the emphasis on reasoning as a source of knowledge. Empiricism is the emphasis on observational evidence via sensory experience over other evidence as the source of knowledge. Rationalism claims that every possible object of knowledge can be deduced from coherent premises without observation. Empiricism claims that at least some knowledge is only a matter of observation.Logic is the study of the principles of correct reasoning. Arguments use either deductive reasoning or inductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning is when, given certain statements (called premises), other statements (called conclusions) are unavoidably implied. Rules of inferences from premises include the most popular method, modus ponens, where given “A” and “If A then B”, then “B” must be concluded. A common convention for a deductive argument is the syllogism. An argument is termed valid if its conclusion does follow from its premises, whether the premises are true or not, while an argument is sound if its conclusion follows from premises that are true. Propositional logic uses premises that are propositions, which are declarations that are either true or false, while predicate logic uses more complex premises called formulae that contain variables. These can be assigned values or can be quantified as to when they apply with the universal quantifier (always apply) or the existential quantifier (applies at least once). Inductive reasoning makes conclusions or generalizations based on probabilistic reasoning. For example, if “90% of humans are right-handed” and “Joe is human” then “Joe is probably right-handed”. Fields in logic include mathematical logic (formal symbolic logic) and philosophical logicOne debate that has commanded the attention of ethicists in the modern era has been between consequentialism (actions are to be morally evaluated solely by their consequences) and deontology (actions are to be morally evaluated solely by consideration of agents' duties, the rights of those whom the action concerns, or both). Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill are famous for propagating utilitarianism, which is the idea that the fundamental moral rule is to strive toward the "greatest happiness for the greatest number". However, in promoting this idea they also necessarily promoted the broader doctrine of consequentialism. Adopting a position opposed to consequentialism, Immanuel Kant argued that moral principles were simply products of reason. Kant believed that the incorporation of consequences into moral deliberation was a deep mistake, since it denies the necessity of practical…
• John Locke familiar with declarations of independent
• Kant was practical reasoning
• Locke takes things up as a social contract
• A contract is a formal agreement between two people
• Mutual contracts with each other is a way for us to get along.
• John Locke(1632-1704) nice and friendly
• Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) rude and mean
• During this time period the Spanish Armanda was happening (1588). Elizabeth the first (virgin queen)
• “I in fear were born in the same year”…
The study of logic is a study of the rules of reasoning by which people arrive at conclusions. Logic is defined popularly as the science of reasoning, but that is not entirely accurate. The term "reasoning merely identifies the practice of drawing conclusions from premises.
Much of the time philosophers study what other people take for granted. They ask "Why?" and "How?" when others are content to accept what seems obvious and in need of no justification. Philosophy thus involves explanations…
Ethics, also known as moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality. Moral philosophy includes ethical theory and a part of philosophical anthropology called moral psychology. Ethical theory examines the right. Moral psychology inquiries into the mental states in which people do right (Ryan, 1998). Almost every important tendency in modern thought has questioned the possibility of making moral judgments. Analytical philosophy asserts that moral statements are expressions…
What Is Your Philosophy?
November 19, 2012
C. Wayne Mayhill
Student Jeremy D. Adams
Philosophy is the general study of fundamental and social problems. Upon taking the What is Philosophy? Performance Aid this author discovered that he is a moral type of philosopher. There are many different types of philosophical outlooks; these include epistemology, moral, metaphysics, social, political, structuralism, deconstruction, eastern, postcolonial, feminism.
Philosophy has been defined as “the love of wisdom” (85). Several have affirmed that the study of philosophy will help you become a critical thinker, to see things better than others, and to have a more fulfilling life. I see philosophy as one’s own ideas or belief of certain issues. To reflect and understand ones and other belief system, this definition can cause positive or negative arguments on if and why we should study philosophy. Dr. Seyed Zafer ul Hassan lecture of, Philosophy and The…
UMD Oct. 7th 2013
Logic and Philosophy
Once the meaning theory is settled there will be no further, properly metaphysical,
question to be determined.
Choosing a non-classical logical basis for set theory does not amount to selecting a collection of…
I will argue that we should be skeptical of radical philosophers because there is not much logical reasoning behind their ideas unlike modern philosophy which presents arguments in a much more logical and reasonable way.
Descartes tries to say he must doubt all of his beliefs based on the fact that he cannot trust his senses because he might be sleeping and is being deceived into thinking he is awake. He is skeptical of his senses in this dreaming argument because he is a human and humans sleep…
Ethics: Moral Philosophies
Business Ethics: Moral Philosophies
Christopher Robertson stated in his article:
“Business ethics researchers have made significant progress toward the goal of attaining a deeper understanding of the ethical decision-making process (Cullen et al., 2004; Hosmer, 2000). Scholars have studied numerous influential factors and theories related to ethical decision making such as individual ethical values, moral intensity, situational factors, moral philosophies…
What is Philosophy?
Philosophy is the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence especially when considered as an academic discipline. Philosophy is also a set of views and theories of a particular philosopher concerning such study or an aspect of it. Philosophy comes from the Greek word ‘philosophia’ which means ‘our love of wisdom. We use philosophy in our everyday lives from such simple questions like ‘is it going to rain today?’ ‘What am I going to wear today?’ and…
consists of two parts, the first part has to do with moral rules while the other part has to do with what is considered ‘good’. The formation of what we believe ethics to be, according to Russell, is man’s tendency to give more emphasis on the state of mind, rather than putting more stress on rules. Philosophy and mystical religion are the two sources that Russell claims is the reason for this tendency. One of the reasons why external rules are not stressed is because the notion of conscious. Russell…