Through the millions and possibly billions of court cases that arrive with the times, similar questions are constantly being presented before the judges and juries of America. These questions are similar in how they approach the issue of constitutionalism. In cases ranging from murder to misdemeanor charges, and everything in between, the continuous theme is that of the matters involving all precedents, legalities, discretions, and most importantly, founders’ intentions. In the Supreme Court case Bowsher v. Synar, I find myself in agreeance with Chief Justice Burger’s opinion of the court for his overall thesis being in agreement with those similar ideologies, principles, and values held by that of our founding fathers. Aside from the founding fathers’ philosophies, there are a plethora of principles proving the opinion of the Court to be a correct interpretation of the constitution in the language of agency appointment responsibilities. It is explicitly expressed that the President has these powers, while the umbrella principle of all unassigned roles being given to the Congress, is a bit more of a stretch as well as an excuse for Congressional breaching of power. Another key element that calls for the agreement with the opinion is the Madison idea of “mingling of the Executive and Legislative branches of government in one body”1 to be an argument most “plausibly grounded against the Constitution.”2 This indeed proves that Synar’s, and others, reasoning behind their accusations of the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings act being unconstitutional is false on the grounds that violating this act violates the Separation of Powers Doctrine. To furthermore the sustenance of Chief Justice Chief Justice Burger’s opinion, a closer look at many key figures, aside from the founders, throughout history and their governmental beliefs being aligned with that of the opinion. These facts and many others will prove the overall situation of Constitutional powers, delegated to particular branches, to rule in favor of the Executive and call the breach that is found in the Congressional seeking of declaratory relief to be disorderly in regards to the founders’ intentions. The power of executing the law is, out rightly, without question, a duty of the president of the United States as well as fellow executive officers. To better understand any particular case at hand, a little imagination is needed. Attempt to envision Madison, Adams, Hamilton, and even Jefferson in the courtroom, gavel in hand. With this though process, a few grey areas of interpretation become clear. One of these newly found, clearer projections is that of the purposes found in the Constitutional Convention. Application of Constitutional Conventional arguments to modern court cases is quite easy considering the founders’ brilliance already disputed these same principles. Fortunately, there was a clear winner in the Convention, and there has been no true appeal to our Constitution, only amendments to adjust with the changing times. This factual and historical evidence of the Federalists proving themselves to have the right ingredients for the rigid, and at the time discombobulated, United States displays a lesson to learn. This lesson is that there is no greater precedent in American court cases than our references to the Constitutional Convention. This ideology may seem obvious, but application of this argument is not that easy. We must fully compromise the focal point and central theme the federalists supplied for our nation. This theme is a creation of a document that can heal the country of its tremendous wounds suffered from a rushed, weak, unprepared, and flimsy Articles of Confederation. Their solution was a strong, collective, fast acting, and most importantly energetic federal government headed by a president. This history lesson is more than acknowledgeable in regards to Bowsher v. Synar due to Chief Justice Burger’s opinion and its awareness of the standards found
AMERICAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITY SYSTEM
Charles Town, West Virginia
The Duel – Hamilton and Burr
Submitted to the Department of History
December 16, 2011
On July 11, 1804, a duel occurred in Weehawken, New Jersey. Duels were not extremely uncommon in those days but what made this one significant was the individuals involved in the contest. One of the participants was Aaron Burr who happened to be the sitting Vice President of the United States. The other participant was Alexander Hamilton…
religion, integrity, honesty, and was appealing to the younger crowd because of his age became a starter point to involving all younger generations into politics. Due to all the improvements to the U.S made during his short term, including Moon Landing, Voting Rights, and Public Debates, JFK became one of the most memorable presidents along with the founding fathers of our beloved country.
The start of JFK’s life was not a typical one. He was surrounded by wealth, but not even all the money in the world…
fine and great with the new America, a large portion of the society remained in the shadows, their voice unheard, and their representation denied. So despite the strong emphasis on the ideals of equality and liberty placed on this country by the founding fathers, the newly forged “American Identity” left out a large portion of society in the form of the slave, the woman and the person from the lower classes. Through this, representation and a say in government was effectively restricted the landowners/white…
10 / 10 pts
Perry Miller said of Jonathan Edwards that his true life is the
life of self
life of a mind
life of others
life of family
10 / 10 pts
Edwards was born in
10 / 10 pts
Edwards' grandfather, Rev. Solomon Stoddard, was known as
Pope of the Connecticut Valley
Pope of the Connecticut Mountain
Pope of the Connecticut Seashore
Machiavelli’s masterwork The Prince, written after his release, is dedicated to one of the Medici, and (on one possible reading) it is a particularly ingenious attempt to guide the prince toward beneficent government, much as Castiglione’s perfect courtier aims to do. But recognizing, perhaps, the futility of trying to shape unruly passions into benign virtues, Machiavelli turns instead to the counterbalancing weight of interest: rather than appeal to the prince’s love of entertainment and good…
political, social and economic reforms. Political reformation was created with the goal to overall end government corruption and enable citizenry, like in the Oregon Populists party movement. “Muckrackers” wrote about things such as exposing venal politics and scandalous social problems. Social reformation helped the people in penury, and the needy (people who have been shown injustice). There were many forms of this: ranging from women’s suffrage, to labor movements, railroad unions, as well as, many…
Socrates 469 BC–399 BC, was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher. Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, he is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon, and the plays of his contemporary Aristophanes. Many would claim that Plato's dialogues are the most comprehensive accounts of Socrates to survive from antiquity.
Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has…
public speaking and humanitarian work. Clinton created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address international causes such as the prevention of AIDS and global warming. In 2004, he published his autobiography My Life. He has remained active in politics by campaigning for Democratic candidates, most notably for his wife's campaign for the 2008 Democratic presidential nomination, and then Barack Obama's presidential campaigns in 2008 and 2012. In 2009, he was named United Nations Special Envoy to…
A pixel is the basic binary digit used by computers.
The Bauhaus was a pre-World War II advertising agency that notably used Laszlo Moholy-Nagy’s photographs.
A lower ISO number means the camera is more sensitive to light, whereas a higher number means the camera is less sensitive to light.
ADVERTISING 318J FALL 2013
Sept. 3, 2013
Which ads are good? Bad?
Mini Cooper Ad (bad)
Porche (good) people can afford porche
Hieneken Beer (excellent)
ALL OF THEM WERE BEST OF THE BEST
Advertising is everywhere, surrounds us
b. Most people in US like advertising
i. Helps them with product information
ii. Supports Media they use (won’t have cable without advertising)
iii. Advertising can be fun
What is advertising?