Questions On Genetics

Submitted By ladymeda
Words: 453
Pages: 2


Terminology phenotype-observable traits (appearance) genotypes-traits passed on by genes chromosomes-threadlike structure of DNA; matched pairs; 22 somatic (body), 2 sex chromosomes (X + Y); male-xx ; female- xy karyotype-complement of chromosomes (what karyotype are you)

DNA nucleotide bases-ATGC gene-unit of heredity; genetic term; sequence of nucleotide that codes for DNA; each gene makes a protein alleles-specific version of a gene for the same trait; inherit different alleles from parents (ex.eye color) locus-location of an allele of a chromosome; ex. eye color genes of an allele are location in the same chromosomes

homozygous-same allele (blue color eyes) heterozygous-one; different (blue allele, green allele) monozygotic twins/identical- one fertilized eggs that was split into two; clones; the same alleles dizygotic twins/fraternal-two eggs that were fertilized (Mary Kate/Ashely-fraternal twins, but looks almost alike because of chance of getting the same alleles) twin adoption studies-comparisons of identical twins and fraternal twins that has been adopted out dominant, recessive- mutation- heritability index-probability of inheriting the gene (ex. Mom with blue allele and Dad with brown allele-depends, could be 50% chance of inheriting) concordance rate-likelihood of expressing a genetic trait (blue allele that is 50%, and the brown is 50% so the concordance is 0 because brown is dominant)
The process of taking DNA and making a protein product:

DNA transcription->RNA translation ->amino acids(each amino acid is composed of 3 nucleotides)->proteins

gene upregulation-the genetic code is transcribed, and the translated into new proteins (the gene is "turned on")-> actively making proteins gene downregulation-the genetic code is silenced; proteins are not made (the gene is "turned off")->stops making protein
Q-how many genes does it take to produce any given behavior? mood-a lot of genes