Culture and Language in Canada
Due December 3,13
By: Kaitlyn Lohr
1. 1760 – The British and French were fighting for ownership of and control over North America’s land and resources. After many years of conflict, the British defeated the French in 1760. New France was captures and occupied by British troops.
2. 1763 – One treaty, the Royal Proclamation of 1763, was referred to by the British government as a temporary First Nation Bill of rights. The British promised to honour First Nation peoples, language, and right to live on their lands. However, the government did not revisit these treaties until 1876. / With the Treaty of Paris, New France became the British colony of Quebec. General James Murray became the first governor of the new British colony of Quebec.
3. 1774 - Governor Murray and Sir Guy Carlton, who later took his place, both reached the same conclusion. They believed that, as much as possible, the Canadians should be allowed to maintain their ways of life. As a result of Carleton’s efforts, the Quebec Act was passed. Under this legislation, Quebec’s border was expanded far to the west, including the best fur trapping lands, and no land was taken from the French. Roman Catholics were free to practise their religion and hold public office. French civil law was retained, but British criminal law was established and no elected assembly was created.
4. 1775-1783 – After the American Revolution of 1775 – 1783, a large number of people who did not want to rebel against British rule left America and came to Canada. Called Loyalists, these former Americans increased the Anglophone population and the influence of British culture in Quebec.
5. 1791 - With the increase of the Anglophone population, the colonial authorities in Britain believed that changes should be made to the Quebec Act. The Constitutional Act was passed. This act divided Quebec into two colonies and recognized the cultural duality in Canada. (Designed to be fair to both Francophones and Anglophones.)
6. 1830 – Reformers in both Upper and Lower Quebec wanted to change each colony to a more democratic system of government. When demands were refused, they rebelled. British forces put down the rebellions. To try and eliminate the friction that had caused them, England sent Lord Durham to Canada to study the problem. Durham suggested that the government be made more democratic and that Upper and Lower Canada become one single colony. Durham hoped that the French language and culture would disappear because Anglophones outnumbered Francophones. Some Francophone leaders such as Antoine Aime Dorion opposed confederation. The francophone champion of confederation was Georges Etienne Cartier. He believed that French and English could work together in harmony to produce a strong Canada..
7. 1867 – The Canadian Constitution – known as the British North America Act was passed by Britain. This marked the beginning of Confederation.
8. November 1869 – After Louis Riel (Metis Leader) was refused a seat in parliament, the Metis organized a provisional government with Riel as president. Riels government developed a list of rights that the Metis wanted the federal government in Ottawa to guarantee before Red River joined Confederation. The prime minister of Canada, John A. MacDonald delayed making a decision. The Metis had executed a trouble making Anglophone, Thomas Scott, and English speaking Canadians were outraged. Finally MacDonald acted.
9. 1870 – MacDonald’s government passed a bill that established the province of Manitoba. A governor, agreed upon by the Metis, was to be sent to take over the colony. Each Metis was to receive land grant of 240 acres. The new province was also given a representative in Parliament and French was made an official language.
10. 1876 – MacDonald’s government created the Indian Act. This act was to ensure that the treaty agreements the First Nations people had