Baked Cookies on Acrylamide Content, Texture, and Color of the Final Product
Abstract: Effect of radio frequency (RF) postdrying of partially baked cookies on acrylamide content, texture, and color of the ﬁnal product was investigated in this study. Control cookies were prepared by baking in a conventional oven at 205 ◦ C for 11 min. Cookies partially baked for 8 and 9 min were postdried in a 27.12 MHz RF tunnel oven until attainment of the moisture content of control cookies. Internal temperature of cookies was monitored during the experiments to better explain the results. Cookies were analyzed for acrylamide content using a liquid chromatographymass spectrometry (LC-MS) method. Texture measurements were performed using a Texture Analyzer, while digital image analysis was used for color measurement. The results showed that RF postdrying of partially baked cookies resulted in lower acrylamide levels (107.3 ng/g for control cookies, 74.6 ng/g upon RF postdrying of cookies partially baked for 9 min, 51.1 ng/g upon RF postdrying of cookies partially baked for 8 min). Instrumental texture analysis showed no signiﬁcant difference among the texture of cookies, whereas RF postdried samples had a lower degree of browning. According to sensory evaluation results, control had a more crumbly texture, and RF postdried sample that was conventionally baked for 8 min had a slightly uncooked ﬂavor.
Keywords: acrylamide, baking, color, cookies, postdrying, radio frequency, texture
Combining radio frequency and conventional baking may provide cookie manufacturers with ability to make cookies with lower levels of acrylamide.
In April 2002, researchers in Sweden showed that acrylamide, a potential carcinogen for humans, forms during heating of certain foods at high temperatures and low moisture conditions associated with frying, baking, and roasting. Research up to date shows that acrylamide formation in starch-based foods (such as potato chips,
French fries, bread and breakfast cereals, cookies and crackers) takes place via Maillard reaction upon heating above 120 ◦ C (Mottram and others 2002; Stadler and others 2002; Friedman 2003).
Cookies are among the foods with the highest levels of acrylamide (Katz and Ward 2010). Being frequently consumed by people of all ages further increases the importance of cookies.
Cookie industry is also a substantial sector of the food industry
(Manley 2000). Therefore, numerous studies have been conducted to reduce acrylamide level of cookies. In these studies, it has been reported that formation of acrylamide can be limited by reformulating the product and/or modifying the baking conditions.
MS 20111264 Submitted 10/17/2011, Accepted 2/2/2012. Author Palazo˘lu g is with Dept. of Food Engineering, Univ. of Mersin, 33343, Ciftlikkoy, Mersin,
Turkey. Authors Palazo˘lu and Coskun are with TermaTek Thermal Food Techg
nologies, Mersin Technology Development Zone, 33343, Ciftlikkoy, Mersin, Turkey.
Authors Kocada˘lı and G¨kmen are with Dept. of Food Engineering, Hacettepe g o
Univ., 06532 Beytepe, Ankara, Turkey. Direct inquires to author Palazo˘lu (E-mail: g firstname.lastname@example.org).
C 2012 Institute of Food Technologists R doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02664.x
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Among these, the most prominent methods are replacing ammonium bicarbonate with alternative leavening agents (Amrein and others 2004), use of asparaginase (Hendsriksen and others
2009; Anese and others 2011), addition of amino acids or protein hydrolizates (Brathen and others 2005), and lowering baking temperature (Taeymans and others 2004; G¨ kmen and others 2007). o The literature is, however, lacking in investigation of the effect of radio frequency (RF) postdrying on acrylamide formation in bakery products. RF heaters are known to efﬁciently