1. An enzyme is a protein that catalyzes chemical reactions without being consumed during the reaction. It is neither a substrate nor a product.
2. Enzymes all have active sites where substrates bind to so the chemical reaction’s activation energy is decreased. Enzymes are very specific. Each enzyme can only speed up the reaction of one or a limited number of substrates. This is because the active site can only be bound to certain substrates. Enzymes are not altered by the reactions they take part in so once they are done with one reaction, another molecule can bind to the enzyme and the enzyme can be reused. This is because they are not an input or an output of the reaction.
3. A substrate is the reactant in a chemical …show more content…
The transition state is the unstable intermediate state between reactants and products. During the transition state, the compound’s old bonds are breaking and new bonds are forming. The transition state is achieved through the reactants absorption of energy from its surroundings. The energy the substrate needs to reach the transition state is the activation energy.
6. Activation energy is the energy input needed by the reactants to reach the transition state. The Substrate absorbs this energy from its surroundings. Only when the transition state is reached can the reaction continue and form products. Enzymes lower the activation energy and by doing so increase the speed of the reaction.
7. Enzymes can place substrates in contact with one another so that the catalytic groups can interact with each other. This decreases the amount of energy needed for the substrate and catalytic group to interact. Enzymes can also use the charge side groups in their amino acid structures to stabilize the transition states between the initial and final product in the reaction. Enzymes can lock the substrates and catalytic groups in place to reduce their movement. Enzymes can induce bond strain in the substrate. The enzyme induces structural rearrangements to force substrate bonds into a position closer to the conformation of the transition state. This lowers the energy difference between substrate and transition states. Enzymes can create a charge distribution opposite to that of the transition