Questions On Chromosomes

Submitted By Chelsea-Danher-Hart
Words: 411
Pages: 2

Chromosome - Chromosomes are the genetic information found in the nucleus of every cell in our bodies. They are rod-like structures made of DNA that become visible when our cells divide.
Gene - A gene is a section of a chromosome (DNA) that codes for one specific protein or RNA molecule. Eg. enzyme or hormone etc
Where are the chromosomes held? The chromosomes are held in the nucleus.
How many chromosome pairs do humans have? Humans have 46 chromosomes and 23 chromosome pairs.
What happens to the chromosomes during Mitosis and Meiosis?
Mitosis is the process of the forming of two identical daughter nuclei. Mitosis produces diploid cells. Part of cell division.
During Meiosis the chromosomes duplicate themselves to get two identical daughter nuclei and then divide again so there is 4 identical chromosomes with 23 chromosomes each. This process is necessary in order to halve the number of chromosomes going into the sex cells.
Homozygous - having two like genes
Alleles - different genes received from each parent. Code for alternate forms of one characteristic
Dominant - stronger gene that always shows itself
Recessive - weaker gene that is hidden when the dominant is present
Heterozygous genotype - one dominant allele and one recessive.
Genotype - possible combination of alleles
Phenotype - the physical trait that we see
DNA - Deoxyribonucleic Acid
The DNA structure is described as a double helix. The complementary base pairings is A&T and G&C. (therefore be able to figure out the