Scoliosis is a complex deformity or curvature of the spine and entire torso and has been recognized clinically for centuries (Asher, Marc A.). “For a few of the patients an underlying cause can be determined, including congenital changes, secondary changes related to neuropathic or myopathic conditions, or later in life from degenerative spondylosis. However, the cause of most scoliosis is not known and since about 1922 such patients have been diagnosed as having idiopathic scoliosis (Asher, Marc A.).”
Based on the observation of three distinct periods of climax, scoliosis has been sub-divided into three groups; infantile, before the age of 3; juvenile, age 5 to 8; and adolescent, age 10 until the end of …show more content…
Due to advances in surgery the number of scoliosis curves greater than 100° had dropped considerably by 1973. The indications for surgery as an adult are pain, appearance, and pulmonary problems, i.e. shortness of breath. However, it is unusual for these symptoms to be severe enough to warrant surgery. In addition only those with surgery had pain management problems (Asher, Marc A.).” Although there are some risks associated with surgery they have decreased substantially. Death is very unlikely but can occur, especially in patients operated as adults (Horn, Pamela).
“Knowledge of the natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis has expanded greatly in the last two decades. It has become clear that only about one in ten curves progresses to the point that treatment with bracing is warranted, and only one in 25, or 0.1%, to the point that surgery is warranted. Bracing appears to prevent about 20% to 40% of appropriately braced curves from progressing 6° or more. Surgery, consisting of instrumentation and arthrodesis has virtually eliminated large thoracic curves. Although most patients are satisfied with their results, follow-up at 20+ years shows significant, clinically relevant decrease in function and increase in pain compared to controls. Re-operation is required in 6 to 29%. And, a very few have pain management problems (Asher, Marc A.).”