How did life begin? How was the Earth created? How were humans created? These questions have long been studied by all sorts of people, and there are many theories. According to the Bible and those who worship God, it is believed that God created the Earth and the heavens, along with the human race and all life. Modern geologists and scientists have a different theory, though; that, billions of years ago, dust collected into rings that gradually spun, heated up, and later formed the planets. Scientists also believe in evolutionism; that humans slowly evolved over years of evolution, and that humans are descended from monkeys. These different theories on creation have been debated many times since they were introduced; some believe evolutionism is correct, while others think creationism is the correct theory, and neither side can agree with the other. The debate between these theories came to a head in the 1920s when a teacher, John Scopes, was arrested and tried for teaching evolution in school. The ACLU, or American Civil Liberties Union, defended Scopes and declared the charges unconstitutional. The trial made headline news for weeks; reporters from all over the world gather outside the courthouse to be the first to report new information. All the publicity from the trial allowed the evolutionism vs. creationism conflict to once again be headline news. After this trial, Americans grew even more divided on the issue, but slowly the theory of evolution became more accepted throughout the country. To what extent did the Scopes Trial expose evolutionism and help the theory become more accepted? The Scopes Trial had a seemingly innocuous start. In 1925, the Butler Act was passed by Tennessee legislature; it stated that denying creationism and promoting evolution in its place in Tennessee public schools was prohibited, and breaking the law would be considered a misdemeanor, with the convicted paying a fine of up to $500 (Linder, 1). While this law was generally abided, the ACLU opposed it, stating that the law was unconstitutional. The ACLU wanted to argue the act in court, but needed a defendant with which to do so. They put out an ad that they would fund a test case against the Butler Act, and were looking for a teacher to act as a defendant. George Rappleyea, a businessman in Dayton, Tennessee, saw this announcement and thought it was a perfect opportunity to draw needed attention to their town. He met John T. Scopes, a substitute teacher and football coach at Rhea County High School, at a drug store and convinced Scopes to accept the role as the defendant in the ACLU’s case (Linder, 2). Scopes, however, didn’t recall whether or not he ever taught evolution; the textbook he used when substituting, though, did contain a chapter on evolution (Scopes, 1). Anti-evolutionist William Bell Riley saw the case, and immediately told his friend William Jennings Bryan of it, who quickly became the lead prosecutor of the case. Bryan’s addition to the case cast national attention on the case, as he had been Secretary of State under Woodrow Wilson (Edwards, 2). Upon hearing of Bryan’s involvement in the case, Clarence Darrow, a famous criminal lawyer, volunteered to lead the defense. Darrow had openly disputed with Bryan for years over the subject of evolution, and the case was the perfect opportunity to openly debate Bryan. With the addition of these two superstar lawyers, the case grabbed headlines around the world. The town quickly built new hotels and stores in preparation for the onslaught of reporters. Over $1000 of telephone lines was laid just for the event (Cornelius, 3). Hundreds of reporters from as far away as Hong Kong came to Dayton, along with preachers, politicians, and even some performers (Cornelius, 3). The most famous reporter, from Baltimore, was H.L. Mencken, whose account of the trial was very influential on the world. The attention that the trial drew was greater than anyone would have expected.
Henry Ford produced cars that could be afforded by middle-class families by reducing the cost & labor of the cars. The automobiles changed American life because he introduced assembly line where each person on the line had one job.
• The Scopes Trial was a trial concerning if evolution is teachable in the schools and is a possibility concerning how human beings evolved.
• The Harlem Renaissance was a movement by POC with creative pursuits like music, art, architecture and literature.
• After WWI…
Clash of Values
The Scopes Trial:
The Scopes Trial was a dispute between the traditionalists and the modernists. The Traditionalists were afraid that everything valuable was coming to an end, and the modernists didn’t care whether their behavior was socially acceptable or not or whether their behavior met their intellect. Modernism caused new social patterns that started a wave of revivalism, which became strong in the south. No one knew who would rule American culture, the modernists or the…
transformation that were being made in busy cities, like New York and Chicago. These antagonistic lifestyles obviously created conflicting opinions on various situations and circumstances, that ranged from constitutional amendments all the way to court trials.
One of the greatest conflicts during this time period bore an all-American gangster who constructed his fame and fortune around the illegal solicitation of alcohol. This illegal solicitation was brought on by the 18th amendment - prohibition -…
religion happening in the United States. The Scopes Monkey trial was the main headline for religious tension throughout the era. Modernists like Scopes challenged the notion that everything in the bible should be literally interpreted, this lead to anti-evolutionist groups like the Anti-Evolution League, petitioning against the conflict of hell in the high school (Doc 4). Unfortunately for evolutionists the Scopes Monkey trial ended with a guilty verdict and Scopes failed to get an appeal.
recognize didn’t have the same extreme effect as other more obscure events in American history. Although Gillon recognizes that historically significant events such as Pearl Harbor changed the nation, he believes events should be measured based on the scope of the questions they leave unanswered; and he attempts to prove this in 10 Days that Unexpectedly Changed America by examining lesser known events.
Gillon believes days like July 4, 1776 (Pearl Harbor), and other historically significant events…
drinking, treating sex in a casual manner, smoking, driving automobiles
b. Red Scare-a period of general fear of communists
c. Scopes Trial-The 1925 trial of John T. Scopes, charged with violating Tennessee state law for teaching evolution in a public school; attorneys were William Cullen Bryan for the State of Tennessee and Clarence Darrow for Mr. Scopes
d. Harlem Renaissance- a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished…
went on trial in may 1921, they were found guilty and sentenced to death by electric chair. The evidence for Sacco and Vanzetti were 107 eye witnesses to say they were elsewhere. After the case “did you see what I did to those anarchists bastards” said the judge. The word Anarchist means that they are no rules; you are allowed to do anything you want. America did not agree with the beliefs of anarchists. This shows America was intolerant because Sacco and Vanzetti were not given a fair trial. 90% of…
theory of evolution some states refused to teach it to the school children. Now the (ACLU) offered to defend any willing to challenge the law passed by Tennessee’s legislation and one man did named John Scopes he was arrested for teaching evolution to his class and his trial was known as the Scopes Trial it was broadcast on the radio. Other things taking place was probation where alcoholic beverage was outlawed but people still found ways to get what they wanted in speakeasy’s or private bars the still…
harmony and forms with
African musical elements
such as blue notes,
and the swung note.
Scopes Monkey Trial
Formally known as The
State of Tennessee v. John
Thomas Scopes and
commonly referred to as
the Scopes Monkey Trial,
was a famous American
legal case in 1925 in which
a high school teacher, John
Scopes, was accused of
Butler Act, which made it
unlawful to teach human
evolution in any statefunded school.
Honors United States History
Chapter 24: The 1920
1. After reading the introduction on page 717, list characteristics of the modernists and traditionalists. (5 each)
• Running headlong into the future
• Decade of fun rather than reform
• Good times rather than high ideals
• Modern – home, marriage, women, technology
• Science better guide to life than religion
• Various life styles
• Sex for fun for both partners not just for procreation
• Minorities need…