Brief history of organizational behavior – SLIDES 1
A. Scientific Management Theory
1. Job Specialization and the Division of Labor Adam Smith Craft-style – all steps Production – One step Higher efficiency
2. F. W. Taylor and Scientific Management Use scientific principles to solve efficiency problems Emphasis: Simplification / Job standardization
Four Principles of Scientific Management
1. Study the ways jobs are performed now and determine new ways to do them.
Gather detailed time and motion information.
Try different methods to see which is best.
2. Codify the new methods into rules.
Teach to all workers the new method.
3. Select workers whose skills match the rules.
4. Establish fair levels of performance and pay a premium for higher performance.
Workers & Employers should benefit from higher output
3. The Gilbreths 4. Industrial Psychology B. Administrative Management Theory
1. Weber’s Theory of Bureaucracy
2. Fayol’s Principles of Management C. Behavioral Management Theory – HR Movement
1. The Work of Mary Parker Follett: Motivate job performance instead of demanding it
2. The Hawthorne Studies and Human Relations : manipulate workplace factors
3. McGregor – Theory x a : X workers – disliked work Y: Positive -
Contingency approach – calls for using management concepts and techniques in a situational appropriate manner instead on relying on “one best way”.
Human relations, Total quality, Contingency view, etc
Human and Social Capital – Human individual characteristics / Social - relationships
Psychological Capital and Positive Organizational Behavior – P. 61
POB: the study and application of positively oriented human resource strengths and psychological capacities that can be measured, developed and effectively managed for performance improvement in today’s workplace.
CHAPTER FOUR: Perception and Diversity
Common Perception errors: Table 4.1 / P. 88 Halo, Leniency, Central tendency, Recency, Contrast
Implications of the perception process for management: p. 90 / 91 – Fig. 4.1 - 85 Employee selection and hiring, performance appraisal, Leadership, Communication
Kelly’s Model of Attribution--Internal attribution/ External attribution p92 – fig. 4.2 Three key dimensions Consensus – people Distinctiveness - tasks Consistency - time Fundamental attribution bias and self serving bias p. 94 Fundamental attribution bias: reflects one’s tendency to attribute another person’s behavior to his / her personal characteristics, as opposed to situational factors
Self serving bias: represents one’s tendency to take more personal responsibility for success than failure. Managerial implications of Kelly’s model – p95
Broader meanings of Diversity – p96/97
Generational differences p. 103
CHAPTER FIVE: Individual Differences: Self-Concept, Personality & Emotions
Big five personality dimensions and implications p 119
Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Openness to Experience
Proactive personality: p 120
Someone who is relatively unstrained by situational forces and who effects environmental change. Proactive people identify opportunities and act on them, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs
Self-esteem vs. self-efficacy/sources of self-efficacy beliefs p. 124 / 125
Self esteem – is a belief about one’s own self-worth based on an overall self evaluation.
Self-efficacy is a person’s belief about his or her chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task.
Behaviors associated with self-efficacy beliefs p 127
High – positive / low – negative
Sources: Experience, Behavior models, Persuasion, Assessment
Locus of control: internal vs. external p129
Internal – people believe they control the events / External: other factors