1. Imagine a football setting on the grass. What factors impact the shading and shadows on the football? If a football is being placed on the grass, there are several factors impacting the shading and shadows on that ball. The first factor to consider is the location of the football on the field and the position of the Sun’s rays. Then we see how the ball is illuminated; being the viewer, the direction in which you look at the ball, matters. The shading tells us about the illumination of the football, surface texture, surface shape, and the angle in which you are viewing. Look for evidence of specific surface properties. In this case, we are dealing with a football, so the pigskin will have no reflective qualities, leaving the shading more neutral and matte. Dull and matte surfaces omit scattered light. The shading tells us about the illumination of the football, surface texture, surface shape, and the angle in which you are viewing. Now shadowing, tells us where the light is being blocked by opaque objects, and in this case, about the scene in which the ball exists, due to shadow being solely affected by the light interaction. Secondary illumination is also something to consider. The lighting of one surface influences the illumination of a neighboring surface, and vice versa. Are there objects or people surrounding the football? Any little object that has mass and a surface can affect the shading and shadowing of the ball.
2. Find an image of "Drawing Hands" by Escher. Describe how Escher uses shading and shadows to give the optical illusion. Escher uses shading and shadows cleverly in his piece. He shows the lower halves of the hands as flat with no contour. The hands become more detailed and shaded closer to the palm and are simpler and more cartoonish at the wrist. This is used to both create and challenge our illusion of realism. Escher uses line and shades of gray, not only to outline the objects on the page, but also to create color and shading differentials that they create lines and separate between portions of the work. For example, on the top of the hand, lighter shading creates variation between the fingers. Short, light lines across the back of the bottom hand create texture accurate to that of skin and add to the piece’s realism. The hands are drawing on another piece of paper and overlap off the page creating the three-dimensionality. It is a wonderful optical illusion. The shading done on each hand that creates the 3D effect is