Smallpox is a contagious, serious, and sometimes fatal infectious disease derived from the variola virus, which emerged in human populations thousands of years ago. It was one of the world’s most devastating diseases known to our humanity. The pox part of smallpox comes from the Latin word “spotted”, and refers to the raised bumps that surface throughout the face and body on an infected person. There is no specific treatment if someone were to make contact with this virus; however, there is ample amounts of vaccines to help prevent the spread. There are two forms of smallpox; variola major and variola minor. As expected in the title, variola major is the worse of the two, causing a more extensive rash and higher fever. There are four types of the variola major: ordinary (which accounts for 90% of cases), modified (which is mild and occurs in vaccinated people), flat, and hemorrhagic, which are both very rare, and deadly. Overall, the fatality rate for the major strand is roughly 30%, whereas variola minor is less common and only accounts for less than 1% of our death rates. Symptoms of a typical smallpox infection begins with a fever and extreme lethargy for approximately two weeks after exposure to the variola virus. Depending on which form of the virus you come into contact with, depends on the intensity of the fever, and symptoms. Within the first 12-14 days of exposure, known as the incubation period, a person is not contagious and may feel fine, with no symptoms. Then the initial symptoms of headache, sore throat, vomiting, body aches come on and last for 2-4 days, which sometimes can be contagious. When a person is most contagious, is in the early rash stage which last about 4 days. Small red spots emerge on the tongue and in mouth which develop into sores that break open and spread large amounts of the virus into the mouth. When the sores in the mouth break open, a rash then appears on the skin and spreads throughout the entire surface. Then the small dots become raised bumps which fill with liquid, which then turn into pustules, and eventually form a scab. Once the scabs have fallen off, a person is no longer contagious. The transmission of smallpox generally requires direct, face-to-face contact, direct contact with infected bodily fluids, or contaminated objects such as bedding or clothing. It has rarely been associated with the spread by air in enclosed settings, however a few cases did emerge from transmission this way. Humans are the only known host to this virus; there has been no evidence as of yet to be transmitted by insects or animals. It initially plagued human populations by too close of contact with the sores, and by respiratory droplets from an infected person. Luckily for us, smallpox is the only disease on our planet to have been eradicated, and was declared as such in 1980. It was done by a global immunization campaign led by the World Health Organization. Once it was declared eradicated, vaccines were no longer administered simply because there wasn’t a need to do so. A few samples remain in laboratory stockpiles, which has caused great concern and debate since the events of September 11, 2001. Many want the sample destroyed to prevent it from being used as an agent of bioterrorism. Due to this, military and civilian personnel who may be deployed in high threat areas are…
“…no man dared to
count his children as
his own until they had
had the disease.”
-Conte de la Condamine
18 century mathematical and scientist
By: CJ Mohamed, Taylor Miller, Tamia Morgan,
Dij’Anna Mercuis, Dyrrell McCoy
• What is smallpox
• Differentiating Diseases
WHAT IS SMALLPOX?
• A contagious, disfiguring and often
• Affected humans for thousands of years
• Naturally occurring
Vaccinations are the preparations of a week or killed pathogen in order to prevent
the person from contracting a particular disease
or infection. They are mostly used as
preventative manners however are needed
when a person is at risk, or is believed to have
contracted the disease. This then helps to
greatly improve immunisation (to be protected
from the disease or infection) all around the
world. This is done by exposing peoples
immune system to foreign particles…
the Vaccination for Smallpox be Available? |
The purpose of this paper is to discuss a definition of disease, information pertaining to a specific disease, and who the disease will primarily affect. We will then discover the contraction, symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment for the Variola virus, which is commonly referred to as smallpox. We will then explain the discovery and the history of the disease as well as the creation of the vaccination for smallpox. We…
Potential Dangers of Smallpox
Smallpox is a well-known infectious agent of the past. The “pox” in the title is plural for ‘pocke’, which means sac. ‘Pox” is also Latin for spotted and refers to the bumps it produces on infected persons. The name ‘smallpox’ first occurs in Holinshead’s Chronicles from 1571, and is named in order to distinguish it from syphilis, the ‘great pox’. Smallpox is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus and the Poxiviridae family. The last case of smallpox in the United States…
Vijay Panchanathan, Geeta Chaudhri and Gunasegaran Karupiah
Smallpox was a deadly disease when it was rife yet despite its eradication more than 30 years ago, the possibility of accidental or intentional release has driven research in search of better deﬁnitions of correlates of protective immunity. Mousepox, a disease caused by ectromelia virus (ECTV), is arguably one of the best surrogate small animal models for smallpox. Correlates of protection in mousepox are well deﬁned during primary…
everything possible to make sure their children are healthy and protected from preventable diseases. Vaccination is the best way to do that. Vaccination can not only benefit your children but also the people around your children. Vaccines have reduced and in some cases eliminated many diseases that killed or severely disabled people just a few generations ago for example the vaccination of smallpox put an end to the disease worldwide and now the vaccine is not needed.
There are many myths and misconceptions…
particular trait. Sometimes it can be difficult to determine mode of inheritance, as not all the data may be available (family histories can be vague).
The first human vaccines against viruses were based using weaker or attenuated viruses to generate immunity. The smallpox vaccine used cowpox; a poxvirus that was similar enough to smallpox to protect against it but usually didn’t serious illness. Rabies was the first virus attenuated in a lab to create a vaccine for humans.
or not to vaccinate: this is an ethical debate that has been around since the 1700s. The debate in America can also be traced back to the 1700s, which was based on the right to be inoculated against smallpox. Currently the vaccination debate has evolved into the right not to vaccinate. Vaccinations are effective in eliminating many infectious diseases that are known to be harmful to the general public (Center Disease Control,[CDC] 2011). They are limited to their full effectiveness based on the…
Mercury in Flu Vaccinations five times the CDC's safe level
Interview of Dr Eva Snead by Gary Null
GARY NULL: One of the most outspoken, intelligent and absolutely determined physicians on public health issues
that’s Dr Edith Snead. Nice to have you with us today.
DR EVA SNEAD: Nice to be with you. I appreciated all that flattery.
Well you deserve it. That’s because I wouldn’t give it if it’s not deserved. Let’s talk quickly, we have about eight
minutes to talk about this l…